Presentation on theme: "STM and Encoding Objective – to describe how encoding works in the STM."— Presentation transcript:
STM and Encoding Objective – to describe how encoding works in the STM
How does information arrive at the sensory registration stage? Information arrives in its ___ ____ or original modality. That is to say if the information has been presented __________ it is still in the _________________ Psychologists wish to know what happens to this information when it reaches the ______. The main question is _______________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________
The various ways in which stimulus inputs can be encoded. Information could be stored ___________. Information could be stored _____________ Information could be stored ______________. glove In order to remember the word glove a subject could ___________ a glove. In order to remember the word glove the subject may __________________ ______________________________ The subject may add meaning such as _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________
Encoding Short term memory (STM) Research has shown that information is put into STM in an acoustic form. However, visual encoding in STM is also possible. For example, images such as abstract pictures, which would be impossible to translate into an acoustic code, can be held in STM for brief periods of time, as investigated by Conrad in (1964). Aim; to establish the form In which information is encoded into STM. Participants were shown a sequence of six letters from B C F M N P S T V and X. They were asked to write them down as they appeared, but the presentation was too fast for them to keep up, so they had to be held in STM. The errors that they made were analysed. Results; Participants often made acoustic confusion errors, where the letters that they had seen were replaced by those with a similar sound. For example P was written instead of B or V. there were almost no errors where letters with different sounds were confused, e.g. S for P. Conclusion: Even when information is presented visually, encoding is acoustic.
Experimental evidence – Conrad (1964) Conrad investigated coding in STM, _________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ He achieved this by ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Read the about Conrad's experiment and answer the questions underneath.
Factors affecting encoding in short term memory. The sound of words Conrad's study suggested that STM relies heavily on _________ coding. Baddeley (1966) wondered whether Conrad's results were ___________ __________________________________________________________ Baddeley set about testing this idea by presenting participants with __________ rather than ____________ and comparing the effect of ___________________ _______________________________________________________________ Read the handout on the study carried out by Baddeley (1966)
The study involved presenting participants with six drawings of familiar objects like the ones shown. And asked to memorize the m in order. Participants were then asked to form a mental image of each one in turn and to subtract specified part of the drawing as shown. They were then asked to name the resulting image; for example, the left-hand image is a wrapped sweet, but it becomes a fish. When the right-hand section of the image is removed. Participants were able to name on average 2.7 of the six items. Another group of participants was given the same tasks to do except they they were prevented form articulating during the learning stage. they had to go La La La La. This prevented them converting the pictorial image into a verbal code. This group were able to name 3.8 items correctly. Because they were using visual coding they found it easier to subtract a part form the visual image than the first group of participants who had coded the original stimulus in verbal form. Brandimonte (1992) demonstrated that visual coding can be used in STM and that in certain circumstances it is superior
1.Why do you think Brandimonte chose to use 6 drawings? 2.Why did the first group score only 2.7? 3.Why did the second group recite LaLaLa? 4.Can we be sure that under normal circumstances we would convert the pictorial image into a visual code? make sure you provide an explanation in this answer. 5.There is evidence in her study that items in STM can be coded in another way, what is it?