Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Spatiotemporal Information Processing No.2 3 components of Virtual Reality-1 Sensing System Kazuhiko HAMAMOTO Dept. of Information Media Technology, School.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Spatiotemporal Information Processing No.2 3 components of Virtual Reality-1 Sensing System Kazuhiko HAMAMOTO Dept. of Information Media Technology, School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spatiotemporal Information Processing No.2 3 components of Virtual Reality-1 Sensing System Kazuhiko HAMAMOTO Dept. of Information Media Technology, School of Information and Telecommunication Eng., Tokai University, Japan

2 Today’s Contents  Virtual Reality and its 3 components (review)  Sensing System Tracker  Electromagnetic induction method  Ultrasound method  Optical method Data Glove

3 Virtual Reality (review)  A computer will be able to process spatiotemporal information in next generation  To access the information, the computer will use human sense  Ordinary behavior of person is also used as interface to computer. The human interface is “Virtual Reality”

4 Definition of “Virtual Reality” (review)  What is not actual, but has the same essence as actual thing  The world where we can access by the five senses and human behavior can be used as human interface directly  First proponent of “Virtual Reality” is J.Lanier, USA, in 1987

5 3 elements of Virtual Reality (review)  3D Environment 3D virtual space is “natural” for human senses.  Real-Time Interaction Real time response of computer to action of person  Autonomy Virtual space exists even if people (user) doesn’t exist, Virtual space exists not only as human interface but independent of user.

6  Sensing system Detection of motion (head, eyeball, trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs) in real 3D space and input to computer  Simulation system Creation of virtual space, and calculation of motion of virtual objects and real-virtual matching  Display system (Realistic display) Display of not only visual but aural, tactile and olfactory information, and stimulus of sense organs 3 components for Virtual Reality (review)

7 The relationship among 3 components (review) Person real spacevirtual space Simulation system Display system Sensing system computer

8 Sensing system  What is done? and Where is it done?  Measurement of Where Coordinates and direction in 3D space 6 Degree Of Freedom : 6DOF  Coordinates : x, y, z  Direction : Euler angle (yaw, pitch, roll)  “Tracker”  Measurement of What Form of hand or body and their action Creation and display of their CG after the measurement Input of the intention of operating object

9 Sensing system : Euler angle  Definition of the order of axis rotation  “yaw, pitch, roll” means : 1 st : z-axis, α[degree] 2 nd : y-axis, β[degree] 3 rd : x-axis, γ[degree] in the right figure

10 Sensing System : Euler angle (X,Y,Z) : World coordinate system (x,y,z) : Local coordinate system

11 Required condition of Tracker  Measurement of coordinates (x,y,z) and direction (yaw, pitch, roll), total 6DOF  6DOF information can be measured in real time  The sampling rate is enough for representation of user’s natural action  The precision is less than one of sense of organ  The range where Tracker can measure 6DOF can cover the range of user’s action  Tracker doesn’t restrict user’s action and it should be free from environment

12 Sensing system : Tracker  Tracker by electromagnetic induction Use of electromagnetic induction 3 coils intersect perpendicularly each other Transmitter (fixed)  Generation of changing Magnetic flux Receiver (moving object)  Change of Linkage flux -> induced current in each of coils Magnitude of induced currents is determined by position (x,y,z) and direction (pitch,yaw,roll) of the receiver. 6DOF of the receiver (moving object) can be detected by the induced currents.

13 Transmitter coil ( fixed in the space ) Receiver coil (x,y,z,α,β,γ) Generation and change of Electromagnetic field Induced voltage V=f (x,y,z,α,β,γ) depends on distance from transmitter and angle of receiver coil (amount of flux linkage) Orthogonal coil V=f (x,y,z,α,β,γ) 9 equation, 6 unknown information Sensing system : Tracker

14 Transmitter (orthogonal coil) Receiver (orthogonal coil) Magnetic field detectordrive circuit Control unit Output of 6DOF of receiver (X 、 Y 、 Z 、 Roll 、 Yaw 、 Pitch) Sensing system : Tracker

15  Advantages High precision  Coordinate : a few [mm], Angle : less than 1[deg] Small size and light weight Not suffer from physical obstacles  Weak points Narrow range of measurement, which depends on the size of transmitter Suffer from magnetic material, for example, a desk made by steel More the number of receiver is, less the sampling rate becomes Sensing system : Tracker

16  3SPACE SYSTEM (POLHEMUS Inc.) ISOTRAKII  Precision position 2.4 [mm] angle 0.75 [degree]  Area hemisphere whose radius is 76 [cm]  Data rate 30pts/s (2receiver)

17 Tracker 2 transmitter Receiver (fixed) Receive US Calculation of distance A transmitter is on the arc A B A transmitter is on the cross point of 2 arcs. Measurement of B transmitter by the same matter Angle of the Tracker can be detected The distance is used as a radius Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by ultrasound

18  6DOF measurement by 3 transmitters and 3 receivers  Advantages Easy for measurement Not suffer from magnetic materials  Weak points Error by a change of sound velocity Suffer from the reflection and physical obstacles Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by ultrasound

19  Ivan Sutherland’s method 3 transmitter on user’s helmet  37, 38.6, 40.2kHz 4 receivers at each corner of the ceiling Continuous USs are transmitted, and separated after the measurement. 12 patterns of phase shifts between transmitted USs and received USs can be used for position detection Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by ultrasound

20  InterSense, Inc. IS-900 The wide range of tracking 3m×3m ~ 15m×15m The Precision  coordinate 4mm  angle 0.2 ~ 0.4 [degree] The size of sensor  3cm ~ 4cm Data rate 180Hz Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by ultrasound

21  Markers emit by infrared rays and the markers are taken by high speed camera  Multiple camera and transmittance of infrared rays  High speed and high precision of measurement (6DOF in real time) can be realized  No restriction for user  No limitation of the number of marker Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by Optics

22  Vicon Maximum 16million pixels , 10-bit gray scale Maximum shutter speed 2000FPS Maximum motion processing speed 120FPS A small marker can cover the wide range and measure the information in detailed Resolution less than 5mm in practical case Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by Optics

23  HoloStage, Immersive Virtual Environment in Tokai University Sensing system : Tracker Tracker by Optics

24 Sensing system : glove device  Input of user’s intention of manipulation of computer (virtual space manipulation)  Keyboard and mouse are not enough.  Data glove Input of motion of hand and finger Every joint has a sensor. The sensor measures bent angle. Precision is 0.5 [degree]. The form of hand is prepared in CG.

25  Attach a sensor to hand and finger, their deformation are measured Optical fiber method  The change of transmittance by the bent angle  VPL Inc , DataGlove, 1987 Conductive ink with cloth method  The change of resistance by a bend of finger  Virtual Technologies Inc , CyberGlove Sensing system : glove device basic principles

26  VPL Inc, DataGlove 1987  2 fibers for one finger  No.1 and No.2 joint of a finger are measured.  = 10DOF  The shape of a fiber is “U”.  LED -> fiber -> phototransistor  Approximation of the action by CG Sensing system : glove device example of optical type

27  Conductive ink Liquid with particle who has conductivity, for example, carbon  The resistance depends on the length of a sensor.  The length of a sensor depends on the bent angle. Short = low resistance Long = high resistance The bent angle sensor by conductive ink Sensing system : glove device example of conductive ink type

28  Immersion Inc, CyberGlove  The number of sensor : 18 or models  2 sensor for each fingers, the root of thums, the bent angle and twist of wrist 22 models  18 models + 4 No.1 angles of each finger  precision : 0.5 degree  Refresh rate : 149 record/s Sensing system : glove device example of conductive ink type


Download ppt "Spatiotemporal Information Processing No.2 3 components of Virtual Reality-1 Sensing System Kazuhiko HAMAMOTO Dept. of Information Media Technology, School."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google