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Laboratory & Research Safety Russell Vernon, Ph.D. Laboratory / Research Safety & Integrated Waste Manager University of California, Riverside 951-827-5119,

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Presentation on theme: "Laboratory & Research Safety Russell Vernon, Ph.D. Laboratory / Research Safety & Integrated Waste Manager University of California, Riverside 951-827-5119,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Laboratory & Research Safety Russell Vernon, Ph.D. Laboratory / Research Safety & Integrated Waste Manager University of California, Riverside 951-827-5119,

2 Agenda Research & Teaching  Synergy (Whole greater than sum of parts) Involves chemicals, infectious agents, animals, plants, people, radioactive hazards, machines, lasers, etc… and People Labs are different… Hazard Communication & Laboratory Standard Employees vs. volunteers & students Field Work & Safety Teaching Research ISEM – core functions Five Steps


4 Synergy – Research & Teaching 90 % communication Why do students go to college? What motivates graduate students? Why are Faculty here? What motivates faculty & staff? 10 % information Ah the hazards: Health & physicals hazards Chemical, Physical, Biological, Radioactive…

5 University Mission Teaching Research Public Service Research, Grants & Publications Teaching Public Service

6 Safety, Health & Environmental Goals ZERO… workplace injuries workplace illnesses related injury/illness at home property loss unintended environmental damage

7 5/3/20157 Involves & relies on Lab/Research Community Safety Teaching Laboratories Laboratory Research Field Research Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation & Bio Safety Officers Fire Prevention, Building Design & Maintenance, Industrial Hygienists etc.

8 5/3/20158 Departments Involved (UCR Example) Air Pollution Research Center R Anthropology TRF Biochemistry TR Bioengineering TR Biology TRF Biomedical Sciences TR Botany & Plant Sciences TRF Cell Biology T Chemical Engineering T Chemistry TR CE-CERT RF Center for Conservation Biology RF Cell Biology & Neurosciences TR Earth & Planetary Sciences TRF Electrical Engineering TR Entomology TRF Environmental Engineering T Chemical & Environmental Engineering TRF Environmental Science TRF Environmental Toxicology T Inst Geophysics Planetary Physics R MS&E TR Mechanical Engineering TR Nematology TRF Neuroscience T Plant Pathology & Microbiology TRF Physics and Astronomy TRF Psychology RF Soil and Water Science TRF Education Abroad F Sociology F T = Teaching Labs R = Research Labs F = Field Work

9 5/3/20159 Community Metrics The normally the most hazardous activity Throughout US and several foreign countries Thousands of trips UC-wide Unknown number field trips annually (at least > 200 at UCR alone) Fieldwork

10 5/3/201510 Grants $/Assignable Square Foot

11 Specialization Programs Laboratory & Research Safety Chemical & Laboratory Safety Laboratory Safety Inspections Radiation Safety Biological Safety Laboratory Design Safety Agricultural, Field, Marine Safety Craig Maxwell Brenda Wong

12 5/3/201512 Chemical Hygiene Plan Exposure Assessment Standard Operating Procedures Nanomaterial safety High hazard materials safety Laboratory ergonomics Departmental Contacts Campus Policymakers Chemical safety & fire code segregation Specialized area Chemical & Laboratory Safety

13 Synergy – hazards are just tools Researchers select to use chemicals based upon project needs, familiarization & level of effort required Chemical Hazard Types Health & physical hazards (OSHA) Laboratory Standard only applies to health hazards Chemicals, biohazards, radioactives Obvious overlap exists

14 Health Hazards - Chemicals “statistically significant evidence” that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees carcinogens toxic or highly toxic agents reproductive toxins irritants corrosives sensitizers hepatotoxins nephrotoxins neurotoxins hematopoietic damaging agents anything that damages lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes

15 Physical Hazards - Chemicals “scientifically valid evidence” it is combustible liquid compressed gas explosive flammable organic peroxide oxidizer pyrophoric unstable (reactive) water-reactive

16 Chemical Hazard Classes Corrosives Flammables Oxidizers Toxins Reactive Chemicals


18 Labs are Different Cal/OSHA Lab Standard OSHA & Cal/OSHA Lab Standard are essentially identical EPA Academic Lab Rule Not yet adopted by California Flexibility afforded academic laboratories: delay in making waste determinations, longer accumulation times, labeling simplified, encourages lab cleanouts – useful for small quantity generators

19 Cal/OSHA Laboratory Standard Occupational regulations for labs that uses chemicals is the “Laboratory Standard” Requires: Employer limit exposure Initial and periodic exposure monitoring Written Chemical Hygiene Plan Capable of protecting employees from health hazards Capable of keeping exposures below the limits Readily available to employees 5/3/201519

20 Lab Standard Requires Standard operating procedures Criteria determine & implement controls Fume hoods shall function properly Employees shall be trained Circumstances requiring prior approval Medical consultation and examinations Chemical Hygiene officer & Committee 5/3/201520

21 Particularly Hazardous Materials Special provisions required for: Select carcinogens Reproductive toxins Highly acute toxic substances 1. Establishment of a designated area 2. Use of containment devices such as fume hoods or glove boxes 3. Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste 4. Decontamination procedures 5/3/201521

22 Issues with Compliance Who is responsible? Who is the ‘Employer?’ Who is doing the work? Who is the supervisor? Is there a “supervisor”? Who’s going to pay? Fines Controls & protection (engineering through PPE) Exposure monitoring (initial & periodic) Written documents Signs Equipment

23 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200923 Hazard Controls OSHA hierarchy of controls Engineering controls Work practices Administrative controls Personal protective equipment (PPE)

24 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200924 Engineering Controls 1. Prevention 2. Substitution Highly toxic for less toxic material 3. Process automation 4. Enclosure 5. Process elimination Buy instead of make starting material

25 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200925 Engineering Controls Isolation Common for Radioactives Process Change Ventilation Controls Dilution not OK for HazMat., only heat & odors Local Exhaust Ventilation is the preferred method of ventilation control (eg., chemical fume hood, biosafety cabinet, snorkels. a.k.a. elephant trunks).

26 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200926 Engineering Controls Local Exhaust Ventilation Fume hoods Snorkels Down-draft tables Glove boxes Biosafety cabinets

27 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200927 Fume Hoods …..Exhaust Sash …. Fresh Air….. Bypass Grill…. …..Baffles Airfoil…..

28 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200928 Fume Hood Function & Failure Function Draw air contaminants away from operator Sweep breathing zone with clean air Impediments to proper operation Do not use front 6 inches Do not block air flow - slots

29 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200929 On-line Training from UCB

30 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200930 Biological Safety Cabinets BSCs are designed to provide both a clean work environment and protection for the user BSCs use airflow to create a barrier to airborne particles, such as microorganisms BSCs use High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to clean air going into the work area and out to the environment

31 BioSafety Cabinet (Class IIB2)

32 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200932 Glove Boxes Totally enclosed w/ glove ports Access through ‘air lock’ Air sensitive reagents & biological control Different types & construction

33 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200933 Laminar Flow toward Contamination Source (operator) NO operator protection Protects sample & work DO NOT USE for hazardous material Clean Benches (a.k.a. Tissue culture hoods)

34 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200934 Work Practices Education Hazard recognition and control methods. Training Proper techniques; emergency response & drills Supervision - good safety performance Housekeeping Personal hygiene

35 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200935 Administrative Controls Worker exposure Initial placement, worker rotation for some hazards. Medical Surveillance and immunization. Hazard Identification Signs - notifications, etc.

36 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200936 Personal Protective Equipment The Strategy of Last Resort Respiratory Protection Eye, Face, Hand, Foot Protective Clothing Hearing Head Protection Barrier creams

37 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200937 The Failure of a Glove Karen Wetterhan at Dartmouth

38 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200938 Glove Selection Chemical Compatibility

39 Example

40 Safety Audits & Inspections Regulatory Scope Labs inspected for compliance with California Fire Code Cal/OSHA Lab Standard Chemical Hygiene Plan Hazardous, Medical and Radioactive Waste Labeling, Storage & Segregation Radioactive isotope use Biohazardous materials use Electrical Code

41 Audit Process Options Contact department and/or lab representative Schedule audits for that dept/lab Occupants present Yes – can ask more – takes longer – better result No – limited to physical conditions only Paper or paperless process Time to inspect, time to create reports Consistency between auditors & inspections Automating report creations, summary reports $, FTE, expertise, priorities, accountability 5/3/201541

42 5/3/201542 Human pathogens BSC Certification Oversight Biosafety Risk Assessments Biosafety Audits Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan IBC (BUAs, Select Agents, rDNA) Biosafety Level 3 Facilities Public Health Biological Spill Response Communicable diseases Plant & animal pathogens Specialized area Biological Safety Medical Research Medical Waste Management Plan Medical Waste Treatment Permit Autoclave validation Containment & labeling Animal (vertebrates) IACUC Animal Use Authorizations Vivarium (Consultation, Inspection, AAALAC) Insects, arthropod Invertebrate research Nematodes, Insects, arthropods

43 5/3/201543 Radioactive Use Authorizations Inspection Delivery Radiation exposure monitoring Surveys Dosimetry Radiation Producing Machines Irradiator Security Equipment Clearance Specialized area Radiation Safety Non-ionizing Laser Safety Registration 3b & 4 Microwaves UV Strong Magnetic Fields Training Initial Refresher Radiation Safety Committee Broad scope license Enforcement

44 Laser use Class 3B & 4 Lasers are hazardous Pulsed beam concentrates greater amounts of energy than continuous wave of the same average wattage. “Nothing Leaves the Table”

45 Curtain that burned Laser

46 Synergy – hazards are just tools Check out the BioBrick Contest MIT & UCSF Using BioBrick™ standard biological parts, a synthetic biologist or biological engineer can, to some extent, program living organisms like a computer scientist can program a computer

47 Registry of Standard Biological Parts Biosynthesis: Parts involved in the production or degradation of chemicals and metabolites are listed here Cell-cell signaling and quorum sensing: Parts involved in intercellular signaling and quorum sensing between bacteria Cell death: Parts involved in killing cells Coliroid: Parts involved in taking a bacterial photograph Conjugation: Parts involved in DNA conjugation between bacteria Motility and chemotaxis: Parts involved in motility or chemotaxis of cells Odor production and sensing: Parts the produce or sense odorants DNA recombination: Parts involved in DNA recombination


49 Travel Safety Plus… Field Safety Plans Transportation People; Samples, Materials, Supplies, Equipment; and Hazardous Materials Medical Considerations Security Communications Activities: Before, while there, when you get back

50 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200950 Field Trip Hazards Outdoor hazards Plants Poisonous, highly combustible, etc… Animals Snakes, insects, rodents, etc… Weather Heat stress, hypothermia, sun stroke, etc… Hazards you bring along Chemicals, etc.

51 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200951 What controls can you put in place? What controls already exist? Contact with Emergency Responders What agency will respond & how long? What’s your way to communicate? Can you precisely relay your location? Have a plan before you go Have everyone involved read the plan (& sign that they understand the hazards and risks) Take a copy with you Follow the plan

52 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200952 Field Trip Issues Communication Transportation Field plan Risk management Responsibility & accountability Medical considerations Security

53 Pierce's Disease Bacterial infection (Xylella fastidiosa) spread by bugs that feed on grapevines glassy winged sharpshooter Infected grapevines die


55 UC Laboratory Safety Design Guide 1. General Requirements for Laboratories 2. Electrical Safety 3. Laboratory Ventilation and Fume Hoods 4. Emergency Eyewash and Safety Shower Equipment 5. Pressure Vessel Components and Systems and Compressed Gas Cylinders 6. Hazardous Materials Storage Cabinets 7. Biosafety Laboratories 8. Additional Requirements for Radioactive Material Laboratories 9. Additional Requirements for Laboratories with Irradiators and/or Radiation-Producing Machines 10. Additional Requirements for Laboratories Using Non-Ionizing Radiation Sources, Including Lasers 11. Ergonomics Design and Laboratory Spaces

56 Timely Issues U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System™ (LEED) Labs 21 International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories

57 Sustainable design… Heated and cooled air flowing takes energy Laboratories have ‘single pass’, non-recirculated air to minimize personnel exposure and concentration of flammable vapors Standard Practice a decade ago was 6 to 12 air changes per hour American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers changed guidelines International Building Codes are being adopted

58 The Challenge Safe Labs What is ‘safe’? Who decides? How to inform occupants? How to manage change? Save Energy Important but not primary function Fair comparison of alternatives Who pays the energy bill?

59 ISEM Integrated Safety & Environmental Management

60 Management of Health, Safety and the Environment achieving excellence in providing a healthy and safe working environment supporting environmentally sound practices in the conduct of University activities comply with all applicable health, safety, and environmental protection laws, regulations and requirements

61 Guiding Principles 1. Management Commitments and Involvement of Faculty, Staff, and Students 2. Management Responsibility for Safety and the Environment 3. Establishing Clear Roles and Responsibilities 4. Ensuring Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities 5. Balanced Priorities

62 Guiding Principles (continued) 6. Identification of Safety and Environmental Standards and Requirements 7. Encouraging Stakeholder Participation 8. Adapting Hazard and Operational Controls to Specific University Activities 9. Obtaining Authorization Prior to Conducting an Activity

63 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200963 5 Steps of ISEM (Core Functions) 1. Define scope of activity 2. Identify & analyze hazards 3. Develop & implement controls 4. Perform activity within controls 5. Provide feedback & make improvements

64 Laboratory Safety Orientation, 200964 Why ISEM? Integrates EH&S into all work activities EH&S requirements--part of planning process Focuses on continuous improvement Consistent method that can be applied to any task, job, issue, etc. System versus program approach Not creating more problems by solving one

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