Presentation on theme: "Personal Protective Equipment These handouts and documents with attachments are not final, complete, or definitive instruments. This information is for."— Presentation transcript:
Personal Protective Equipment These handouts and documents with attachments are not final, complete, or definitive instruments. This information is for guidance purposes only. You should independently verify and satisfy yourself as to its accuracy. The AHBSIF does not assume any liability for damages arising from the use of this information or exhibits and attachments thereto and renders no opinion that any of the terms, conditions, and/or cited federal standards in this document and the exhibits and attachments should be explicitly followed by the fund member. Seek specific guidance from the appropriate regulator (OSHA) or professional advisor.
Personal Protective Equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be maintained and provided by the employer when necessaryas of May 15, 2008. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be maintained and provided by the employer when necessary as of May 15, 2008. OSHA now requires employers to pay for personal protective equipment used to comply with OSHA standards. The PPE employers must provide is not specified, but the rule does indentify what must be paid for. Employers cannot require workers to provide their own PPE and the worker’s use of PPE they already own must be completely voluntary. If an employee provides his/her own equipment, the employer is still responsible to make sure it is adequate and well maintained.
Personal Protective Equipment Employers must do the following when providing PPE: Assess the hazards of the workplace to identify and control physical and health hazards. Identify and provide appropriate PPE for employees. Train employees in the use and care of the PPE. Maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged equipment. Periodically review, update and evaluate the effectiveness of the PPE.
Personal Protective Equipment Items Employers must pay for: Metatarsal foot protection Rubber boots with steel toes Non-prescription eye protection Prescription eyewear inserts/lenses for full face respirators Goggles and face shields Fire fighting PPE (helmet, gloves, boots, proximity suits, full gear) Hard hats Hearing protection Welding PPE
Personal Protective Equipment Items Employers are not required to pay for: Steel-toe boots Prescription safety eyewear if worn off the job site. Non uniform work clothes including long-sleeve shirts, long pants, street shoes, and normal work boots. Weather protection clothing, including winter coats, jackets, gloves, parkas, rubber boots, hats, raincoats, ordinary sunglasses, and sunscreen. Lifting belts. Intentionally lost or damaged the PPE.
Definitions PEL – Permissible Exposure Limit Regulatory limits on the concentration of a substance in the air. Based on an 8-hour time weighted average STEL – Short Term Exposure Limit The maximum concentration of a chemical or dust to which workers may be exposed continuously for up to 15 minutes without danger to health TWA – Time Weighted Average The average exposure to a contaminant/condition (ex: noise) to which workers may be exposed without adverse effect per 8-hour day or 40-hour week
Definitions TLV – Threshold Limit Value The level at which a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects. Values are reported in units of parts per million (PPM) or milligrams per cubic centimeter (mg/m³) of air
Definitions TLV, 3 Types (TLV-TWA) Time Weighted Average ► Average exposure on the basis of a 8-hour day or 40-hour work week (TLV-STEL) Short Term Exposure Limit ► Spot exposure for a duration of 15 minutes, that cannot be repeated more than four times per day (TLV-C) Ceiling ► Absolute exposure limit that should not be exceeded at any one time
Definitions Physical agents and chemical substances have TLV’s OSHA regulatory exposure limits (PEL) are mostly based off TLV’s published in 1968, many are not considered sufficiently protective. NIOSH publishes Recommended Exposure Limits (REL) which are more current and more stringent
OSHA PEL vs. NIOSH REL Substance OSHA PEL TWA NIOSH REL TWA Carbon Dioxide 9000 mg/m³ Silica 30 mg/m³ 6 mg/m³ Asphalt Fumes None 5 mg/m³ Cadmium 0.005 mg/cm³ None
Respiratory Protection Construction and Industry Standards are identical Employer must choose the right application for the job.
Structure of the Lung Air enters through mouth and nasal passages Alveoli are responsible for carrying oxygen to the blood stream Oxygen diffuses into blood and is exchanged for carbon dioxide diffuses
Equipment Selection Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Expected level of employee protection Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) Maximum concentration from which an employee can be protected from when wearing a respirator Respiratory hazards may be present in the workplace in different forms Dust and Fiber Mists FumesVapors Gases Biological Hazards
Respiratory Protection Dust Masks are for nuisance dusts only. Respirators are made to filter harmful contaminants from the air. Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) is suitable for atmospheres that are both oxygen deficient and contain harmful contaminants.
Respiratory Protection Employees that have to wear respirators must receive the following: Pulmonary Function Test Pulmonary Function Test Respirator Fit Testing Respirator Fit Testing Education on devices capabilities Education on devices capabilities Storage, cleaning, and regular inspection procedures Storage, cleaning, and regular inspection procedures Regularly monitored work area and conditions Regularly monitored work area and conditions
Respirator Fit Testing Quantitative A pass/fail test to assess respirator fit. Relies on the individual's response to the test agent. (recognizable scents) Qualitative Assesses a respirator’s effectiveness by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.
Respirator Fit Testing 1. Adjust straps and other connecting or fitting devices so that face seal is snug but comfortable. 2. Positive Pressure Test: Place hand over blowout diaphragm and exhale, the mask should first expand, then release around the face seal. 3. Negative Pressure Test: Place hands over the cartridges and inhale, the mask should collapse into the face. If no leaks are discovered, and wearer can sense no surrounding odors, mask is fitted properly. Facial hair that interferes with a proper seal is prohibited.
Crystalline Silica Basic component of sand, granite, and other minerals Classified as a human lung carcinogen Respirable dust enters the lung and forms scar tissue Lung’s capacity to process oxygen is reduced Effects of silicosis include reduced lung capacity, weakness, severe weight loss, and death
Foot Protection Safety footwear must comply with ANSI Z41.1 Required for: Any material handling process where something could be dropped on the foot Any material handling process where something could be dropped on the foot Bulk material handling processes Bulk material handling processes Work around sharp objects that could penetrate and puncture foot Work around sharp objects that could penetrate and puncture foot
Traffic Vests ANSI/ISEA 107-2010 ► Garments are classified by the amount of retroreflective material per the standard, the width and placement of the material, and design & color of vest. ► Class 3: Class 3: Class 3: Highest level of visibility. For workers with high task loads in a wide range of weather conditions where traffic exceeds 50 mph. Recommended for all roadway construction personnel, vehicle operators, utility workers, survey crews, emergency responders, railway workers, accident site investigators. ► Class 2: Class 2: Class 2: For workers near roadways where traffic exceeds 25 mph and require greater visibility in inclement weather. Recommended for railway workers, school crossing guards, parking and toll gate personnel, airport ground, law enforcement directing traffic. ► Class 1: Class 1: Class 1: For workers where traffic does not exceed 25 mph and there is ample separation from the traffic. Recommended for parking service attendants, warehouse workers in equipment traffic, shopping cart retrieval, sidewalk maintenance.
Traffic Vests ANSI/ISEA 107-2010 ► Class 3: Class 3: Class 3: Greatest visibility of the three classes (most reflective material). Must have sleeves with retroreflective material between the shoulders and elbow. Table 1 provides minimum areas of background and coverage of the retroreflective material. Retroreflective material shall not be less than 50mm wide. ► Class 2: Class 2: Class 2: More visibility than Class 1 Retroreflective material shall be not less than 35mm wide. ► Class 1: Class 1: Class 1: These garments need to be conspicuous Retroreflective materials shall not be less than 25mm wide. ► Class E: Class E: Class E: When hi-visibility pants are worn without other ANSI 107 compliant garments, they are considered Class E. When pants are added to Class 2 or 3 vests or coats the ensemble is considered a Class 3 classification. ► There are charts and figures in the standard that give the minimum requirements for retroreflectivity (chromaticity) and luminance (color of vest) combinations that are acceptable. The luminous colors that are used and accepted as long as they meet the minimum standard are fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, and fluorescent red.
Head Protection All hard hats must comply with ANSI standard Z89.1, and Z89.2 for employees exposed to high voltage electric shock. Bump Caps are not acceptable for construction use under these standards.
Head Protection Employees must wear hard hats if there is any possibility of; Being struck by an object falling from a higher level A flying object Electrical shock
Head Protection Class A ► General service (building construction, shipbuilding, lumbering) ► Good impact protection but limited voltage protection Class B ► Electrical / Utility work ► Protects against falling objects and high-voltage shock and burns Class C ► Designed for comfort, offers limited protection ► Protects against bumps from fixed objects, but does not protect against falling objects or electrical shock
Hearing Protection Engineering and Administrative controls should be applied when feasible. Ear plugs must be fitted under the direction of a competent person. If you are arms length from the person talking to you and cannot hear them, its time for hearing protection!
Structure of the Ear Sound enters the canal and creates movement in the middle ear. Movements are transferred to the inner ear via fluids. Hair like structures called cilia convert movements to perceptible sound.
Three Components of Hearing Sound A sound can be intermittent or continuous or a combination of both. A sound can be intermittent or continuous or a combination of both. Intensity is also a factor. Intensity is also a factor. Path Distance, terrain, and medium of travel play a part. Distance, terrain, and medium of travel play a part. Receiver The average unimpaired hearing range of a person is 20 to 20,000 Hz The average unimpaired hearing range of a person is 20 to 20,000 Hz
Facts and Numbers 85 decibels is considered the “Action Level” or the level at which an employee must be enrolled in a HCP (hearing conservation program) and notified of their results. The permissible exposure level for a time weighted average over an eight hour period is 90 decibels. The level at which dual hearing protection must be worn is 105 decibels. The maximum allowable exposure level at any one time during the shift is 115 decibels.
Permissible Noise Exposures Duration/Day, Hours Sound Level dBA 890 692 495 397 2100 1.5102 1105 ½110 ¼ or less 115 ► Are my employees overexposed? ► Use this Formula; D=100(C/T) ► D = Percentage Dose ► 100 = Constant ► C = Hours of Exposure ► T = Allowable Hours per day at specified dbA) ► If Percentage Dose exceeds 100, too much exposure
Noise Exposure Calculation ► EXAMPLE: A technician works in a noise enclosure booth with a noise exposure of less than 70 dBA. The technician makes rounds to read gauges and instruments that are located in an area with a noise level of 105 dBA. The technician makes four trips a day, and each trip lasts 30 minutes. What is the employee’s noise exposure? ► Calculate: D=100(C/T) ► C = 2 Hours (Four 30min trips) ► T = 1, (1 Hour at 105 dBA) ► 100 x (2/1) = 200% ► Exposure: With four trips a day and 30 minutes per trip, the employee is exposed to two hours of noise at 105 dBA with the remaining time spent inside the booth. His exposure is twice the recommended limit. Time for hearing protection!
Components of a Hearing Conservation Program Monitoring Hearing Protection Audiometric Testing Training Record Keeping
Audiometric Testing Required for all employees that work in an environment where TWA is >85 dbA Participant is exposed to a range of sounds Testing establishes a baseline for employee hearing Conducted pre-hire and annually, results must be kept on file A standard threshold shift is described as 10 decibels in either ear.
Muffs vs. Plugs Product will have a Noise Reduction Rating or NRR Rating indicates the performance of the device
MuffsPlugs Average NRR for devices shown: 28.66 23.66
Calculating Noise Reduction using the NRR When C-weighted sound level measurement is available, the following formula should be used to calculate the required NRR Noise Level in dB(C) - Protector NRR = 90 dB(A) or less. When A-weighted sound level measurement is available, the following formula should be used to calculate the required NRR. Noise Level in dB(A) - (Protector NRR - 7 dB) = 90 dB(A) or less
How to insert an Ear Plug Grab the top/back of the ear. Gently pull up and backward. (If disposable foam) Roll the plug between the forefinger and thumb until it is completely compressed. Gently slide the plug in the ear canal. (If disposable foam) Let the plug expand.
Typical A-weighted Sound Levels 0 dB 75 dB 95 dB 100 dB 105 dB 115 dB 120 dB 140 dB Threshold of Hearing Shop Vacuum Jackhammer Table Mounted Router Pneumatic Trim Nailer Circular Saw 7 ¼” Pneumatic Nail Gun Threshold of Pain
Eye & Face Protection All eye and face equipment must comply with ANSI Z87.1 standards. Employers must provide protection when employees are exposed to any and all potential flying debris. ANSI compliant side shields applied to conventional glasses do not make them safety glasses!
Structure of the Eye ► Pupil – Allows light to enter the retina ► Rod – Handle peripheral and low light vision ► Cones - Responsible for color sensitivity ► Retina – Captures image and sends it to the Optic Nerve ► Iris – Controls the size of the Pupil ► Lens – Reflects light to be focused on the retina ► Cornea – Transparent outer cover of the eye ► Optic Nerve – Transfers image to brain
Eye & Face Protection The standard covers general eye protection, eye protection for welding, and laser applications. Tables E-1, E-2, and E-3 tell us minimum performance requirements for our applications.
Hand Protection ► Must be durable and resist the conditions of use ► Glove should not restrict dexterity required for task ► Employee must be educated on capabilities of equipment
Conditions for Glove Use ► Burns ► Bruises ► Abrasions ► Cuts ► Punctures ► Fractures ► Amputations ► Chemical Exposures
Glove Types ► Metal mesh, leather, or canvas Protects from cuts, burns, heat ► Fabric and coated fabric gloves Protects from dirt and abrasion ► Chemical and liquid resistant gloves Protects from burns, irritation, and dermatitis ► Rubber gloves Protects from cuts, lacerations, and abrasions
Safety Harnesses Body belt use has been outlawed. Harness should be properly adjusted to fit the employee. Never use positioning devices as primary means of tie-off. Always have a plan for retrieving a “hanging” worker.
Lanyards Choose the right lanyard for the task at hand. Static w/ shock absorber Static w/ shock absorber Retractable Retractable Nylon Rope or Steel Cable Nylon Rope or Steel Cable Double legged for 100% tie-off transitions Double legged for 100% tie-off transitions ► Must be equipped with double action snap hooks ► May not be tied off on to itself unless designed for such use
Tie-Off Anchorage Anchorage point must withstand a 5000lb. static load. One man per anchorage point unless the instructions for the component state otherwise. Numerous options for construction industry Safe-T-Strap Cross Arm Straps Super Anchor Reusable Metal Brackets w/hardware