Dialectic of Trauma Oscillation of re-experiencing and constrictive defense: –Fits / outbursts:epileptic-like seizures violence –Amnesia:forgetting, repression –Paralyses:immobility –Losses of voice:silencing can ’ t describe trauma
Discovery of the Unconscious
Cast of Characters Fr. Johann Gassner Franz Mesmer Fr. Hell Freulin Oesterlin Antoin LaVoisier Joseph Guillotin Ben Franklin Marquis de Puysegur Phneas Parkhurst Quimby Mary Baker Eddy Jean Charcot Anna O ( Bertha Pappenheim) Joseph Breuer Sigmund Freud
Father Johann Gassner Swiss country priest – renowned exorcist –Public healing spectacles
Fr. Johann Gassner: exorcism
Father Johann Gassner 1775 Target of Papal inquiry: –Ruled unorthodox –Banished to small parish Last gasp of official exorcism
Viennese physician Thesis on effects of planets on illnesses: –Universal fluid (like “ ether ” ) –Planets set up tide that affects humans
Franz Mesmer 1744 Treated Freulein Oesterlin: –Father Hell told of efforts to cure with magnetism –Periodic violent fits & crises –Related to planetary motion? –Tried liquid with iron filings & magnets –Felt “ evil ” feelings flow away –Cured & married Mesmer ’ s son
Mesmer ’ s Theory Scientific – similar to electricity: Universal energy / fluid Disease:imbalance, loss of fluid Cure:channeling & restoring fluid Crises:re-balance fluid
Mesmer ’ s Theory Cures not due to magnets alone Energy / fluid concentrated in his body affects patients “ Animal Magnitism ”
Baquet: like Leyden Jar, collects & stores animal magnetic fluid
Magnetic Healing in Paris
Mesmer as “ Quack ” ?
Mesmerism as scandal
1784 Royal Commission LaVoisier GuillotinFranklin
1784 Royal Commission No evidence of magnetic fluid Cures due to “ imagination ” Danger in erotic ties of women patients to magnetizer
After Royal the Commission Mesmerism eclipsed by French revolution & Napoleonic Wars
Louis Pinel unchains the insane
Marquis de Puysegur Disciple of Mesmer Magnetized servant: –Hyper-alert sleep –Couldn ’ t remember after awakening Cured by “ suggestion ” during magnetic sleep
Puysegur ’ s Theory “ Artificial somnambulism ” Not caused by magnetic fluid Brought about my magnetizer ’ s will & patient ’ s compliance
Puysegur ’ s Theory “ The entire doctrine of Animal Magnetism is contained in the two words Believe and Want. I believe that I have the power to set into action the vital principle of my fellow men; I want to make use of it; this is all my science and all my means. Believe and Want, sirs, and you will do as well as I ”
Mid- 19 th century Study of “ mental illness ” Study of “ natural ” magentic states –Fugue states –Amnesia –Multiple personality
Spiritism & Mediumship in U.S Phineas Quimby Mary Baker Eddy
Christian Science Church, Boston
1880s: Jean Charcot
Hysteria Epileptic-like fits, crises, convulsions Sensory impairments & paralyses Amnesia Charcot discovered: –Symptoms don ’ t follow anatomy “ glove hysteria ” –Hypnotic suggestion could produce “ artificial ” hysterical symptoms
Charcot Demonstrating Hysteria
Charcot ’ s Theory of Hysteria Hypnosis is abnormal state, due to defect in nervous system Traumatic event hypnoid state (in those with defect) inadvertant suggestion hysterical symptom
Studies on Hysteria J. Breuer & S. Freud 1895
Joseph Breuer & Anna O
She once woke up during the night in great anxiety about the patient, who was in a high fever; she was under the strain of expecting the arrival of a surgeon from Vienna who was to operate… Anna was sitting at the bedside with her right arm over the back of her chair. She fell into a waking dream and saw a black snake coming towards the sick man from the wall to bit him…
Anna O She tried to keep the snake off, but it was as though she was paralyzed. Her right arm, over the back of the chair, had gone to sleep and had become anesthetic and paretic; and when she looked it it the fingers turned into little snakes with death’s heads…
Anna O When the snake vanished, in terror she tried to pray. But language failed her; she could find no tongue in which to speak, till at last she thought of some children’s verses in English and then found herself able to think and pray in that language. The whistle of the train that was bringing the doctor whom she expected broke the spell.
Anna O Next day, in the course of a game, she threw a quoit into some bushes; and when she went to pick it out, a bent branch revived her hallucination of the snake, and simultaneously her right arm became rigidly extended. Thenceforward the same thing invariably occurred whenever the hallucination was recalled by some object with a more-or-less snake-like appearance.
Anna O: onset of cough She began coughing for the first time when once, as she was sitting at her father’s bedside, she heard the sound of dance music coming from a neighboring house, felt a sudden wish to be there, and was overcome with self-reproaches. Thereafter, throughout the whole length of her illness she reacted to any markedly rhythmical music with a tussis nervosa [nervous cough].
Anna O: onset of cough Wish to leave father and join friends at dance Self-reproaches Cough as symptom “ Incompatible Idea ”
“ Anna O ” Bertha Pappenheim
Transference Transference: Anna O had fallen in love with Dr. Breuer Counter-Transference: Dr. Breuer had fallen in love with Anna O Hysterical childbirth
Bertha Pappenheim Suffered relapse, hospitalized As “ Paul Berthold ” translated Vindication of the Rights of Women Wrote play, “ The Rights of Women ” Director of orphanage; destitute girls Saved girls from prostitution Founder of social work and leader of women ’ s rights
Bertha Pappenheim “ Silenced ” as dutiful daughter in conservative home? Tension intensified by father ’ s illness, nursing role, self-reproaches? “ Talking cure ” with Breuer helped cure her? Found voice in women ’ s movement Hysteria as pathological reaction to cultural silencing + personal trauma or incompatible idea?
Hypnosis to Free Association Freud was lousy hypnotist Head pressing –Ideas often embarrassing, immoral, anti-social, sexual Resistance Free association –Excavating layers of mind/memory
Freud ’ s Couch
Freud ’ s Antiquities
Only a cigar?
Freud in exile, early 1930s
1896 Etiology of Hysteria Recent event “ traumatic ” because it reawakened childhood trauma 18 cases: childhood seduction or molestation “ Seduction theory ” of hysteria
Seduction Theory of Hysteria In 1895 and 1896 Freud, in listening to his women patients, learned that something dreadful and violent lay in their past. The psychiatrists who had heard these stories before Freud had accused their patients of being hysterical liars and had dismissed their memories as fantasy. Freud was the first psychiatrist who believed his patients were telling the truth… Jeffrey Mason, Assault on Truth
Seduction Theory of Hysteria Freud announced his discovery in a paper which he gave in April 1896 to the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology in Vienna, his first major public address to his peers. The paper met with total silence. Afterwards, he was urged never to publish it, lest his reputation be damaged beyond repair. The silence around him deepened, as did his loneliness. But he defied his colleagues and published “The Aetiology of Hysteria,” an act of great courage. Jeffrey Mason, Assault on Truth
Reaction to “ Etiology ” Paper Freud discovers that one remembered seduction could not have occurred [ Today: “ false memory syndrome ” ] Freud officially abandons seduction theory Develops “ theory of infantile sexuality ”
Psychoanalytic Theory Post-1896: self-analysis 1900 The Interpretation of Dreams 1905 Theory Infantile Sexuality 1905 Dora case: tries to convince Dora she lusts for Herr K
Infantile Sexuality Libido: desire / drive / instinct for sensuous pleasure In children: diffuse, not explicitly sexual “ polymorphous perversity ”
Infantile Sexuality Develops through stages toward “ normal ” adult heterosexuality Oral Anal Phallic / Oedipal Early developments must be repressed & sublimated
Anal Stage (2 – 4) Defecation (control of sphincter) Pleasure: sensation of defecating, making messes, defiance Anxiety: dirtying, loss of control, chaos, fear of punishment Anal character: Order, control, cleanliness, neatness Constrictive / impulsive emotional style
Phallic / Oedipal Stage (5 – 7) Attachment to mother sexualized Punitive father threatens attachment to / dependence on mother Threat experienced as “ castration anxiety ” Sexualized attachment to mother repressed Identification with father – “ masculinity ”
Boys ’ Oedipal Complex Accept as correct? Reject as wrong? Describes psychological consequences of authoritarian fathering?
Girls ’ Oedipal Complex? Discovery of “ castration ” Rejection of mother + sexualized attachment to father (with unconscious “ wish for penis ” ) Shift of attachment from father to man Wish for penis becomes wish for baby Re-identification with mother
Girls ’ Oedipal Complex Accept as correct? Reject as wrong? Describes psych. consequences of patriarchal power?
Oedipal Conflict Resolution “ polymorphous perverse ” erotism repressed ( bisexuality, oral/anal, masturbation, etc. ) Identification with same-sex parent ideal & authority internalized as conscience Societal authorities & prohibitions internalized ( God country king / premier / sultan / fuhrer ) Personality crystallizes
Freud: A Cultural Psychology? Initial IndulgenceAge of TrainingSeverity Oral2nd lowest2nd earliest weaningupper quartile Anal3rd lowest2nd earliestmost severe (tied) Sexlowestamong earliestmost severe (tied) Dependenceslightly below medianslightly earlier than median at median Aggressionnear median slightly above median U.S. vs. 72 non-Western cultures – early 1950s