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1. 2 به نام یگانه آفریننده زیبایی ها... 3 تازه های تغذیه در کودکان و نوجوانان دکتررویا کلیشادی استاد دانشکده پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات رشد و نمو کودکان دانشگاه.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 به نام یگانه آفریننده زیبایی ها... 3 تازه های تغذیه در کودکان و نوجوانان دکتررویا کلیشادی استاد دانشکده پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات رشد و نمو کودکان دانشگاه."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 به نام یگانه آفریننده زیبایی ها...

3 3 تازه های تغذیه در کودکان و نوجوانان دکتررویا کلیشادی استاد دانشکده پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات رشد و نمو کودکان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان

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6 6 اهمیت  پديده جهش رشد در دوران کودکی و نوجوا ني كه درادامه روند رشد اوايل زندگي روي مي دهد ٬ نيازفرد به انرژي و مواد غذايي را افزايش مي دهد. نیازهای غذايي درطي دوران نوجواناني بسیار بیشتر از سايردوران های زندگی است. با توجه به همبستگی تغذيه با رشد و تکامل ٬ تغذيه بهينه شرط لازم و ضروري براي كامل شدن پتانسيل روند رشد است.

7 7  سلامتي دوران بزرگسالي مستلزم سلامتي دوران کودکی و نوجواني است.  پيشگيري و اصلاح اختلالات تغذيه اي براي تامين روند مناسب رشد و تكامل ضروري است.  از سوي ديگر ٬دوران کودکی و نوجواني زمان مناسبي براي اصلاح رفتارها و مشكلات تغذيه اي است كه در اوايل زندگي در حال شكل گيري بوده و تا سال ها بعد تداوم مي يابد كه به نوبه خود٬ در پيشگيري و به تاخير انداختن بيماري هاي مزمن وابسته به تغذيه در دوران بزرگسالي از اهميت زيادي برخوردار است.

8 8 اختلالات شایع تغذیه ای در دوران کودکی و نوجواني  كمبود ريز مغذي ها و املاح معدنی  عدم تعادل در میزان دریافت انرژی و درشت مغذی ها  سوﺀتغذيه و کوتاهی قد  اضافه وزن و چاقي  پيروي از رژيم هاي غذايي خيلي محدود به دليل تصور نادرست از تناسب قد و وزن  گرايش به غذاهاي آماده و ميان وعده هاي غذايي كم ارزش از نظر مواد مغذي

9 9 كمك به والدين براي مقابله با رفتارهاي پر خطر در ارتباط با تغذ یه كودكان و نوجوانان

10 Complementary Feeding Transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods Typically covers the period from 6 to months of age, and is a very vulnerable period. 10

11 FEEDING DURING THE 2nd 6 MO OF LIFE Nelson textbook  By 4–6 mo of age, the infant's capacity to digest and absorb a variety of dietary components as well as to metabolize, use, and excrete the absorbed products of digestion is near the capacity of the adult. Moreover, teeth are beginning to erupt, and the infant is more active and beginning to explore his or her surroundings. With the eruption of teeth, the role of dietary carbohydrate in the development of dental caries must be considered as well as the long-term effects of inadequate or excessive intakes during infancy and the psychosocial role of foods during development. These considerations, rather than concerns about delivery of adequate amounts of nutrients, are major factors underlying the feeding practices advocated during the 2nd 6 mo of life. 11

12 Infants should start receiving complementary foods at 6 months of age Feeding frequency: 2-3 times a day: 6-8 months 3-4 times a day: 9-11 months 3-4 times a day with 1-2 snacks: months Increase food consistency and variety as the child ages 12

13 Practice responsive feeding – Feed infants directly and assist older children when they feed themselves – Offer favorite foods and encourage children to eat when they lose interest or have depressed appetites – If children refuse many foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods for encouragement – Talk to children during feeding – Feed slowly and patiently and minimize distractions during meals – Do not force children to eat 13

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15 What factors influence food choices, eating behaviors, and acceptance?

16 Sociology of Food Hunger Social Status Social Norms Religion/Tradition Nutrition/Health Food Choices –Availability –Cost –Taste –Value –Marketing Forces –Health –Significance

17 Stages of Development: Neurophysiological AgeDevelopment 1-3 monthsHomeostasis* State regulation * Neurophysiologic stability 2-6 monthsAttachment* “falling in love” * Affective engagement and interaction 6-36 months Separation and individuation * Differentiation * Behavioral organization and control

18 Relationship Feeding is a reciprocal process that depends on the abilities and characteristics of both caregiver and infant/child. The feeding relationship is both dependent on and supportive of infants development and temperament

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20 Play, Learning, Exploration

21 SELF-SELECTION OF DIET  Children's strong likes or dislikes of particular foods become apparent after approximately 1 yr of age, and if possible and practicable, they should be respected. For example, the virtues of some foods (spinach) that are nonessential have been overemphasized, and conflicts about such foods should not be allowed to occur. Often a food that is refused when it is first offered will be accepted when it is offered again a few days or weeks later. On the other hand, if basic staples, such as milk and cereal, are consistently rejected, food allergy should be considered. If this is not a problem, alternative forms of these basic staples (cheese, yogurt, breads) should be offered. 21

22 22 اختلالات خوردن بی اشتهایی عصبی پرخوري عصبي  نوجوانان نسبت به ظاهر خود حساس هستند و به همين علت ممكن است براي لاغر شدن هر راهي را انتخاب كنند. ترس از اضافه وزن ممكن است منجر به محدوديت بیش از حد در خوردن شود.  برخی ازنوجوانان با ايجاد استفراغ هاي عمدي و يا استفاده از مسهل براي كنترل وزنشان استفاده مي كنند. اين نوع اختلال در هر دو جنس ديده مي شود.

23 Food Pyramid 23

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25 25 Healthy Food Guide Pyramid

26 26 The Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid

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28 My Plate 28  MyPlate is divided into sections of approximately 30 percent grains,grains 30 percent vegetables,vegetables 20 percent fruits andfruits 20 percent protein,protein accompanied by a smaller circle representing dairy, such as a glass of milk or a yogurt cup. dairymilkyogurt

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30 30 Choose MyPlate: Selected Consumer Messages

31 31 “Your stomach shouldn’t be a waist (waste) basket.” ~ Author Unknown Eat until “satisfied,” not “full”

32 32 It takes about 20 minutes for stomach to tell your brain you’re full minutes

33 33 Photo courtesy of National Cancer Institute Limit foods high in sodium, added sugars, and refined grains

34 34 34 Photo courtesy of National Cancer Institute Eat more nutrient- dense foods

35 35 Another name for “nutrient- dense” foods is “nutrient- rich” foods

36 36 Nutrient-dense foods and beverages include ALL:  Vegetables/fruits  Whole grains  Seafood  Eggs  Dry beans/peas  Unsalted nuts/seeds  Fat-free/low-fat milk/milk products  Lean meats/poultry

37 37 Fill half your plate with fruits & veggies

38 38 Pick a variety of vegetables from each vegetable subgroup

39 39 At least half your grains should be whole grains

40 40 Bran Endosperm Germ Whole grains contain the entire grain seed or “kernel”

41 41 Whole2%1%Fat-free 165 calories 125 calories 100 calories 85 calories Calories saved Switching to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk makes a difference!

42 42 Choose MyPlate “Menu” Foods to reduce –Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods with lower numbers –Drink water instead of sugary drinks

43 43 Easy ways to reduce sodium  Check labels  Avoid adding salt (an exception may be when baking yeast breads)  Eat fresh foods, frozen veggies  Request salt be left off when eating out  Use other seasonings

44 44 Reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake:  Drink fewer sugar- sweetened beverages  Consume smaller portions  Substitute water, unsweetened coffee and tea, and other beverages with few or no calories

45 45 Get active 10 minutes 3 times a day Short on time?

46 46 Vision:  Slowly but surely, investigators in this field are learning that Chronic Adult Diseases are a Pediatric Problem that Emphsizes the Central Role of Pediatricians in this Issue This will help to find ways by which ensuring the well-being of women of reproductive age and their newborn children can have substantial health-promoting effects in the next generation.

47 47 THE END “The greatest wealth is health.”

48 از توجه و حوصله شما سپاسگزارم 48


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