A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Preparation to Find Target Choose Arm for Manipulating the Cervix Develop a Positive Attitude and Relax Always Stand Sideways Behind the Cow
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Choose Arm for Manipulation
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Keep Fingernails Short
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Preparation to Find Target Put on Shoulder-Length Disposable Glove –Keep Fingernails Short –Use a New Glove Every Time to Reduce Disease Transfer Keep Inseminating Syringe Warm, Clean and Dry –Wear Coveralls for Better Syringe Protection
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Lubricate the Glove
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Entering the Cow Place Small Amount of Lubricant on Hand –Do NOT Use Soaps or Detergents –Do NOT Use Manure Gently Rub the Anal Area Insert One Then Multiple Fingers Held Together –With Fingers Forming a Cone Shape, Place an Equal and Opposite Force on the Cow’s Tail –Continue to Push Hand Through Anus Into the Rectum Till Wrist Deep
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Entering the Cow
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Finding the Cervix Insert Hand to Wrist Open Hand From Coned Position Push Down and Begin Sweeping From Side to Side –Helps You Recognize Extent of Pelvic Cavity –Note Pelvic Floor’s Front Drop-off (Pelvic Brim) Press Fingertips Down to Pelvic Floor at the Midline –Cervix Should be Found Near There
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Finding the Cervix
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Possible Obstructions Soft Feces Can Usually be Ignored –If Some Must Be Removed Remove Only as Much as Necessary to Perform Manipulations –Avoid Excessive In and Out Motions Allows Air to Enter Rectum Causes Ballooning –Remove Ballooning By: Gently Slapping or Patting the Rectal Wall or Reach to Forward Part of Ballooned Area and Gently Tug a Fold in the Rectal Wall Backward
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Picking Up Cervix After Location –Determine Width, Length and Consistency Approach Cervix From Side –Sweep Edge of Hand Under It –Turn Hand So Fingers Extend Under Cervix
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Manipulation Lift Cervix –Holding it With Thumb and Fingers Be Gentle but Firm –Control It Move Cervix With Slight but Steady Pressure
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition The Syringe Before Insertion – Thoroughly Wipe Area Around the Vulva Take Syringe From Coveralls or Shirt –Hold Between Thumb and First Two Fingers –Handle as a Feather, Not as a Sword
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Inserting the Syringe Insert the Syringe at a 35 to 45 Degree Angle Level Out After Several Inches Are Inserted This Technique Minimizes Syringe Tip Entering the Urethral Opening
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Navigating the Vagina Gently Push the Syringe Through the Vagina Occasionally You Will Need to Guide the Syringe Around Vaginal Folds To Remove a Fold You Can Also Gently Push the Cervix Forward Keep Gently Inserting Until You Encounter the Cervix –Tissue Will Be Hard Rather Than Soft and Elastic
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Entering the Cervix Position Thumb and First Two Fingers on End of Cervix Protruding Into Vagina –Allow For Simultaneous Recognition of Cervical Opening and Syringe Tip Put Last Two Fingers Behind Cervix –Use Them to Help Guide Syringe Into the Cervix Think of Pulling Cervix Onto Syringe, NOT Pushing Syringe Tip Into Cervix Never Force, Gouge or Drill an Opening With the Syringe
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Blind Pouch Start of Cervix (External OS) –Projects Back Into Vagina Creates a Circular Blind Pouch –Syringe Will Usually End Up in Pouch When Not Guided
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Eliminating the Blind Pouch Close Pouch By Gently Pressing Vaginal Walls Around the Projecting Cervix –Use Thumb on Top –Use Forefinger on the Side –Use Middle Finger on the Bottom –Hold Rear of Cervix Against the Pelvic Wall –Remaining Two Fingers Help Guide Syringe Into Cervix Do Not Press To Hard or You May Close Off the Cervical Opening
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Bypass Dead Ends Inside Cervix are –Cervical Rings and Projections Keep Syringe Tip Moving –Lift, Tilt, Rock and Roll Cervix Do Not Hold Cervix in Palm of Hand –May Close off Passage Way and Prevent Fingertip Action at Syringe Tip
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Cervix Shapes –Sometimes Cervix Bends –Cervical Kinks Will Need to be Straightened to Allow Syringe Advancement Locations –Virgin Heifers and Beef Cows Generally Intra-Pelvic, Easy to Locate –Dairy Cows After Second Calving Extra-Pelvic Locate Cervix and Bring into Pelvic Cavity
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Stop at Target Target is Where Front End of Cervix Joins the Body of the Uterus To Stop on Target: –Put Index Finger at Cervix’s Front Limit Area Where Gristly Cervical Tissue Changes Into Spongy Uterine Tissue –Press Down Slightly With Fingertip Will Be Able to Feel Syringe Tip Pass Through Last Cervical Ring –Deposit Semen Slowly Inject Half of Semen, Re-check Position, Deposit Rest
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Stopping on Target Never Pass Syringe Tip Into Cow’s Uterus –Scraping Uterine Lining Can Cause Damage or Infection –Syringe Jammed Into Uterine Wall Can Cause an Abscess or Fatal Peritonitis
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Dye Test ABS District Sales Managers Can Arrange for Test With an ABS Dye Insemination Kit
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Is Cow Already Pregnant? Normal Cows May Show Heat During Pregnancy –Between 5 and 15% of Cows Will Show At Least One Heat While Pregnant You May Begin to Inseminate a Pregnant Cow –Learn To Recognize Signs of Possible Pregnancy If Pregnancy is Suspected, Pass Syringe Only 2/3 to 3/4 of Way Through Cervix –Can Help Avoid Causing an Abortion –Mark Suspected Pregnancy on Barn Chart
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Suspect Pregnancy If... 1 The time since calving is unusually long, or if the cow seems to be returning to heat after a delay. Determine date of last calving or insemination from the barn chart or individual cow record card.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Suspect Pregnancy If... 2 The cervix feels low, heavy far forward of the pelvic brim and can’t easily be drawn backward and upward.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Suspect Pregnancy If... 3 There’s a sticky feeling and constant drag as the syringe passes through the cervix. It may seem like you’re trying to maneuver through bubble gum.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Suspect Pregnancy If... 4 Thick yellow and sometimes blood-streaked mucus is passing from the vulva. The cow has been inseminated and has probably missed heats for several months. This animal is probably in the early stages of aborting its calf.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Suspect Pregnancy If... 5 There is obvious thinning and enlargement of the uterus.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Suspect Pregnancy If... 6 You can feel any parts of the calf or movement in the uterus.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Summary Think in Terms of Putting the Cow Onto the Syringe Do Fingertip Manipulation Where the Tip is Located Always Hold Tip With Gentle Forward Pressure Develop and Fine-tune Technique for Recognizing Syringe Tip As it Enters Target
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 1 You should always wear shoulder-length gloves as protection for both you and the cow. Do Gloves need to be changed after each cow or heifer? Why or why not? Yes Disease can be transferred with dirty sleeves.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 2 You’re about to insert your hand into the cow’s rectum. How far should you go before you begin searching for the cervix? Wrist deep.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 3 Sometimes it’s difficult to work around feces in the rectum. What should you do to make it easier? If necessary remove enough feces to perform the required manipulations. Avoid excessive in and out movement, as this causes the rectum to balloon and must be removed.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 4 After you’ve located the cervix, how should it be held if you want to manipulate it onto the tip of the syringe? Between the thumb and fingertips from the side.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 5 Why should you thoroughly wipe the area around the vulva before you insert the syringe? Helps keep the inside of the vagina free from contamination.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 6 How do you know if your syringe tip gets caught in a vaginal fold? What should you do? You can feel it outside the cervix, or it is pushing in soft elastic tissue. Back up and maneuver around the fold.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 7 How can you eliminate the trap created by the circular blind pouch? By closing the pouch off with your thumb and fingertips.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 8 Halfway through the cervix the tip of your syringe won’t easily move forward anymore. You think the cervix bends sharply downward. What action should you take to keep the syringe moving forward? Carefully manipulate the cervix to pass through the folds to reach the “target”.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 9 After several failed attempts to find the target you decide that it would be easier to pass the tip of the syringe all the way through the cervix, into the uterus and then back up to the target.Your instructor tells you that you shouldn’t do this. Why not? Because you can damage the fragile uterine tissue by scraping it or puncturing it.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 10 How do you know exactly when the tip of the syringe has reached the target? With your index finger on top of the cervix you can feel the tip of the syringe at the end of the hard tissue of the cervix.
A.I. Management Manual Fifth Edition Question 11 If you suspect a cow is pregnant, what should you do? Do not go all the way through the cervix with the syringe.