Presentation on theme: "FINDING THE INSEMINATOR’S TARGET"— Presentation transcript:
1FINDING THE INSEMINATOR’S TARGET CHAPTER 4FINDING THE INSEMINATOR’S TARGETIn this chapter we will examine the mechanics of insemination. You will find chapter 4 on page 4-1 of your manual, feel free to make notes as we go through the chapter.Insemination is a series of mechanical steps that need to be preformed precisely in a specific order. You can’t change a tire until you have removed the lug nuts.
2Preparation to Find Target Choose Arm for Manipulating the CervixDevelop a Positive Attitude and RelaxAlways Stand Sideways Behind the CowSome basics need to be addressed before beginning to inseminate.If you are right handed your left hand will enter the cow and manipulate the cervix. Your right hand will guide the insemination syringe.Short fingernails will protect the cow and you.Relax, tension tires the muscles faster. A positive person is one that focuses on the solution rather than the challenge.
3Choose Arm for Manipulation To begin we need to choose the hand we will use to palpate the reproductive system. Generally this is your left hand if you are right handed or your right hand if you are left handed.
4Keep Fingernails Short Short fingernails are important to reduce the damage to the cows rectum and to the inseminator's sleeve.
5Preparation to Find Target Put on Shoulder-Length Disposable GloveKeep Fingernails ShortUse a New Glove Every Time to Reduce Disease TransferKeep Inseminating Syringe Warm, Clean and DryWear Coveralls for Better Syringe Protection
6Lubricate the GloveUse only KY Jelly or ABS A.I. Lube not soaps or detergents. Remember if it kills germs it kills sperm.
7Entering the Cow Place Small Amount of Lubricant on Hand Do NOT Use Soaps or DetergentsDo NOT Use ManureGently Rub the Anal AreaInsert One Then Multiple Fingers Held TogetherWith Fingers Forming a Cone Shape, Place an Equal and Opposite Force on the Cow’s TailContinue to Push Hand Through Anus Into the Rectum Till Wrist DeepGrasp the cows tail and gently rub the Anus to get it to relax, then enter your cupped fingers and using the tail as leverage, push your arm into the rectum.
8Entering the CowHere you see the cupped hand entering the cow.
9Finding the Cervix Insert Hand to Wrist Open Hand From Coned Position Push Down and Begin Sweeping From Side to SideHelps You Recognize Extent of Pelvic CavityNote Pelvic Floor’s Front Drop-off (Pelvic Brim)Press Fingertips Down to Pelvic Floor at the MidlineCervix Should be Found Near ThereOnce your in to wrist depth, begin to look for the cervix, open your hand, press down and sweep from side to side, you will feel the pelvic cavity and find the gristly cervix.
11Possible Obstructions Soft Feces Can Usually be IgnoredIf Some Must Be RemovedRemove Only as Much as Necessary to Perform ManipulationsAvoid Excessive In and Out MotionsAllows Air to Enter RectumCauses BallooningRemove Ballooning By:Gently Slapping or Patting the Rectal Wall orReach to Forward Part of Ballooned Area and Gently Tug a Fold in the Rectal Wall BackwardBallooning causes major problems for the inseminator, therefore try to avoid bringing air into the Rectum by pumping in and out.
12Picking Up Cervix After Location Approach Cervix From Side Determine Width, Length and ConsistencyApproach Cervix From SideSweep Edge of Hand Under ItTurn Hand So Fingers Extend Under CervixOnce the cervix has been located, you need to pick it up to be able to manipulate it. Sweep your hand under it and curve your fingers around it.
13Here’s a diagram of the hand position to pick up the cervix.
14Manipulation Lift Cervix Be Gentle but Firm Holding it With Thumb and FingersBe Gentle but FirmControl ItMove Cervix With Slight but Steady PressureGently but firmly lift and move the cervix with steady pressure. The key is to use enough force to control it, not abuse it.
15The Syringe Before Insertion Take Syringe From Coveralls or Shirt Thoroughly Wipe Area Around the VulvaTake Syringe From Coveralls or ShirtHold Between Thumb and First Two FingersHandle as a Feather, Not as a SwordWipe the vulva area with a towel to prevent contamination of the syringe and reproductive tract. Hold the syringe between your thumb and first two fingers. More like holding a dinner fork, not a screwdriver. Handle the syringe with a light touch, not jabs or stabs.
16Inserting the Syringe Insert the Syringe at a 35 to 45 Degree Angle Level Out After Several Inches Are InsertedThis Technique Minimizes Syringe Tip Entering the Urethral OpeningAs you insert the syringe push up until you feel it stop, then level off and proceed forward. This will avoid entering the bladder and get it through the vestibule.
17Navigating the Vagina Gently Push the Syringe Through the Vagina Occasionally You Will Need to Guide the Syringe Around Vaginal FoldsTo Remove a Fold You Can Also Gently Push the Cervix ForwardKeep Gently Inserting Until You Encounter the CervixTissue Will Be Hard Rather Than Soft and ElasticAs you move the syringe forward in the vagina, gently but firmly move the cervix forward to help eliminate any vaginal folds. Always know where your syringe tip is as you proceed.
18Vaginal FoldWhat happens to this fold when you move the cervix forward?Answer: It goes away because of the tightened tissue.
19Entering the CervixPosition Thumb and First Two Fingers on End of Cervix Protruding Into VaginaAllow For Simultaneous Recognition of Cervical Opening and Syringe TipPut Last Two Fingers Behind CervixUse Them to Help Guide Syringe Into the CervixThink of Pulling Cervix Onto Syringe, NOT Pushing Syringe Tip Into CervixNever Force, Gouge or Drill an Opening With the SyringeNow we need to enter the syringe into the cervix. To do this you need to have your thumb and first two fingers near the back end of the cervix where it joins the vagina. The syringe will rest on your last two fingers and you will use them to guide it into the cervix
20Blind Pouch Start of Cervix (External OS) Projects Back Into VaginaCreates a Circular Blind PouchSyringe Will Usually End Up in Pouch When Not GuidedThis illustrates why you must work with the rear end of the cervix to get the syringe started. If this pouch is not closed off your syringe will continue to slide by the opening.
21Eliminating the Blind Pouch Close Pouch By Gently Pressing Vaginal Walls Around the Projecting CervixUse Thumb on TopUse Forefinger on the SideUse Middle Finger on the BottomHold Rear of Cervix Against the Pelvic WallRemaining Two Fingers Help Guide Syringe Into CervixDo Not Press To Hard or You May Close Off the Cervical OpeningYou can use the pelvis to help close off the blind pouch by holding the rear of the cervix against it. The key is to be sure your fingers are positioned at the rear of the cervix. To much grabbing pressure will collapse the canal, adding to the difficulty.
22Here’s an example of using the pelvis to help close off the blind pouch.
23Bypass Dead Ends Inside Cervix are Keep Syringe Tip Moving Cervical Rings and ProjectionsKeep Syringe Tip MovingLift, Tilt, Rock and Roll CervixDo Not Hold Cervix in Palm of HandMay Close off Passage Way and Prevent Fingertip Action at Syringe TipYou will feel the tube slip into the cervix. Once in the cervix you will encounter some cervical rings or projections, these will be overcome by cervical manipulations with your fingertips at the tip of the syringe. Rocking, rolling and tilting the cervix will accomplish this.
24Cervix Shapes Locations Sometimes Cervix Bends Cervical Kinks Will Need to be Straightened to Allow Syringe AdvancementLocationsVirgin Heifers and Beef CowsGenerally Intra-Pelvic, Easy to LocateDairy Cows After Second CalvingExtra-PelvicLocate Cervix and Bring into Pelvic CavityCervixes come in various shapes and sizes some with kinks and some without. Locations can vary too, in heifers it will be well toward the rear, in older cows it can be farther forward. In heifers the size will be smaller than in older cows that have had several calves.
25Here are some examples of different shaped cervixes
26Stop at TargetTarget is Where Front End of Cervix Joins the Body of the UterusTo Stop on Target:Put Index Finger at Cervix’s Front LimitArea Where Gristly Cervical Tissue Changes Into Spongy Uterine TissuePress Down Slightly With FingertipWill Be Able to Feel Syringe Tip Pass Through Last Cervical RingDeposit Semen SlowlyInject Half of Semen, Re-check Position, Deposit RestOnce the syringe has passed through cervix we need to stop it on target (where the uterus and the cervix join).To recognize when the syringe has passed through the cervix your index finger needs to be placed on the top of the forward end of the cervix to feel the tip come through. Once the tip is through the syringe will have a free floating feel, no resistance.
27Stopping on Target Never Pass Syringe Tip Into Cow’s Uterus Scraping Uterine Lining Can Cause Damage or InfectionSyringe Jammed Into Uterine Wall Can Cause an Abscess or Fatal PeritonitisNote the index finger on top. Take the time to be sure of the location of the tip. It takes 9 months to get a calf, taking a few seconds to be sure isn’t much.
28Dye TestABS District Sales Managers Can Arrange for Test With an ABS Dye Insemination KitRefresher courses stressing semen placement are available in many areas.
29Is Cow Already Pregnant? Normal Cows May Show Heat During PregnancyBetween 5 and 15% of Cows Will Show At Least One Heat While PregnantYou May Begin to Inseminate a Pregnant CowLearn To Recognize Signs of Possible PregnancyIf Pregnancy is Suspected, Pass Syringe Only 2/3 to 3/4 of Way Through CervixCan Help Avoid Causing an AbortionMark Suspected Pregnancy on Barn ChartHow do I know if the cow is pregnant? Start with breeding records, anytime the cow shows a heat. Learn to recognize the signs of pregnancy.
30Suspect Pregnancy IfThe time since calving is unusually long, or if the cow seems to be returning to heat after a delay. Determine date of last calving or insemination from the barn chart or individual cow record card.
31Suspect Pregnancy IfThe cervix feels low, heavy far forward of the pelvic brim and can’t easily be drawn backward and upward.
32Suspect Pregnancy IfThere’s a sticky feeling and constant drag as the syringe passes through the cervix. It may seem like you’re trying to maneuver through bubble gum.
33Suspect Pregnancy IfThick yellow and sometimes blood-streaked mucus is passing from the vulva. The cow has been inseminated and has probably missed heats for several months. This animal is probably in the early stages of aborting its calf.
34Suspect Pregnancy IfThere is obvious thinning and enlargement of the uterus.
35Suspect Pregnancy IfYou can feel any parts of the calf or movement in the uterus.
37Summary Think in Terms of Putting the Cow Onto the Syringe Do Fingertip Manipulation Where the Tip is LocatedAlways Hold Tip With Gentle Forward PressureDevelop and Fine-tune Technique for Recognizing Syringe Tip As it Enters Target
38Question 1You should always wear shoulder-length gloves as protection for both you and the cow.Do Gloves need to be changed after each cow or heifer?Why or why not?YesDisease can be transferred with dirty sleeves.
39Question 2 You’re about to insert your hand into the cow’s rectum. How far should you go before you begin searching for the cervix?Wrist deep.
40Question 3Sometimes it’s difficult to work around feces in the rectum.What should you do to make it easier?If necessary remove enough feces to perform the required manipulations. Avoid excessive in and out movement, as this causes the rectum to balloon and must be removed.
41Question 4After you’ve located the cervix, how should it be held if you want to manipulate it onto the tip of the syringe?Between the thumb and fingertips from the side.
42Question 5Why should you thoroughly wipe the area around the vulva before you insert the syringe?Helps keep the inside of the vagina free from contamination.
43Question 6How do you know if your syringe tip gets caught in a vaginal fold?What should you do?You can feel it outside the cervix, or it is pushing in soft elastic tissue.Back up and maneuver around the fold.
44Question 7How can you eliminate the trap created by the circular blind pouch?By closing the pouch off with your thumb and fingertips.
45Question 8Halfway through the cervix the tip of your syringe won’t easily move forward anymore. You think the cervix bends sharply downward.What action should you take to keep the syringe moving forward?Carefully manipulate the cervix to pass through the folds to reach the “target”.
46Question 9After several failed attempts to find the target you decide that it would be easier to pass the tip of the syringe all the way through the cervix, into the uterus and then back up to the target.Your instructor tells you that you shouldn’t do this.Why not?Because you can damage the fragile uterine tissue by scraping it or puncturing it.
47Question 10How do you know exactly when the tip of the syringe has reached the target?With your index finger on top of the cervix you can feel the tip of the syringe at the end of the hard tissue of the cervix.
48Question 11 If you suspect a cow is pregnant, what should you do? Do not go all the way through the cervix with the syringe.