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Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall -

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Presentation on theme: "Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall -"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 30, the reader will be able to: 1.Safely depower a hybrid electric vehicle. 2.Safely perform high-voltage disconnects. 3.Understand the unique service issues related to HEV high-voltage systems. 4.Correctly use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). 5.Explain hazards while driving, moving, and hoisting a hybrid electric vehicle.

3 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENT Rubber Gloves Before working on the high-voltage system of a hybrid electric vehicle, be sure that high-voltage (HV) linesman’s gloves are available. Be sure that the gloves are rated at least 1,000 volts and class “0” by ANSI/ASTM. FIGURE 30-1 Rubber linesman’s gloves protect the wearer from a shock hazard.

4 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENT Rubber Gloves FIGURE 30-2 Wearing leather gloves over the linesman’s gloves helps protect the rubber gloves from damage.

5 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENT Rubber Gloves FIGURE 30-3 Checking rubber linesman’s gloves for pinhole leaks.

6 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENT CAT III–Rated Digital Multimeter Hybrid electric vehicles are equipped with electrical systems whose voltages can exceed 600 volts DC. A CAT III–certified digital multimeter (DMM) is required for making measurements on these high- voltage systems.

7 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENT Eye Protection Eye protection should be worn when testing for high voltage, which is considered by many experts to be anything over 60 volts.

8 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURES Identifying a Hybrid Vehicle To confirm whether a vehicle is a hybrid, look for the word “HYBRID” on the rear of the vehicle. FIGURE 30-4 This Honda Accord hybrid is identified by the emblem on the rear deck lid.

9 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURES Identifying a Hybrid Vehicle Power Source. 12-Volt Battery. Fuse Box. High-Voltage Battery Module. High-Voltage Cables. Airbags and Tensioners –Keep out of the path of an undeployed front airbag, and do not cut into the center of the steering wheel or dashboard where the front airbags are stored. –Do not cut into the rear (C) pillar where the side curtain inflator is stored.

10 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURES Identifying a Hybrid Vehicle FIGURE 30-5 A hybrid electric vehicle can often be identified by looking for orange-colored cables under the hood, as well as other markings on the engine cover.

11 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURES Identifying a Hybrid Vehicle FIGURE 30-6 A Toyota Highlander hybrid battery pack with the cover removed.

12 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ ELECTRIC SHOCK POTENTIAL Unprotected contact with any electrically charged (“hot” or “live”) high-voltage component can cause serious injury or death. However, receiving an electric shock from a hybrid vehicle is highly unlikely because of the following: –Contact with the battery module or other components inside the battery box can occur only if the box is damaged and the contents are exposed, or the box is opened without following proper precautions. –Contact with the electric motor can occur only after one or more components are removed. –The high-voltage cables can be easily identified by their distinctive orange color, and contact with them can be avoided. –The system main relays (SMRs) disconnect power from the cables the moment the ignition is turned off.

13 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ ELECTRIC SHOCK POTENTIAL

14 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ VEHICLE FIRE There are no unusual hazards if a hybrid electric vehicle is involved in a fire. It should be noted, however, that extremely high temperatures (320°F–356°F [160°C–180°C]) can cause undeployed airbags to deploy.

15 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUBMERGED OR PARTIALLY SUBMERGED VEHICLE Pull the vehicle out of the water, then use one of the procedures described next for preventing electric current from flowing through the high-voltage cables.

16 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ PREVENTING CURRENT FLOW THROUGH HIGH- VOLTAGE CABLES Before attempting to rescue occupants or move a damaged hybrid vehicle, the potential for current to flow from the electric motor or the battery module through the high-voltage cables needs to be removed. There are two recommended methods for preventing high-voltage shock hazard. Method One Method Two

17 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ PREVENTING CURRENT FLOW THROUGH HIGH- VOLTAGE CABLES FIGURE 30-7 The high-voltage disconnect (service) plug is located on the left side of the rear seat in a Toyota Highlander hybrid vehicle.

18 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SILENCE IS NOT GOLDEN FIGURE 30-8 The Ford Escape Hybrid instrument panel showing the vehicle in Park and the tachometer on “EV” instead of 0 RPM. This means that the gasoline engine could start at any time depending on the state of charge of the high-voltage batteries and other factors.

19 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EMERGENCY RESPONSE On arrival, emergency responders should follow their standard operating procedures for vehicle incidents. Extrication Offensive Fire Attack Defensive Fire Attack Spills Submersion

20 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ COLLISION AND REPAIR INDUSTRY ISSUES Jump-Starting The 12-volt auxiliary battery may be jump-started if the vehicle does not start. The 12-volt auxiliary battery is often located under the hood but can also be located in the cargo area of some HEVs. Using a jump box or jumper cable from another vehicle, make the connections to the positive and negative battery terminals. FIGURE 30-9 Jump-starting a 2001–2003 Toyota Prius using a 12-volt supply to boost the 12-volt auxiliary battery in the trunk.

21 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ COLLISION AND REPAIR INDUSTRY ISSUES Jump-Starting FIGURE The underhood 12-volt jump-start terminal on this Toyota Prius has a red plastic cover with a “”sign. The positive booster cable clamp will attach directly to the vertical metal bracket.

22 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID If a disabled vehicle needs to be moved a short distance (to the side of the road, for example) and the vehicle can still roll on the ground, the easiest way is to shift the transmission into neutral and manually push the vehicle. Moving the Hybrid Vehicle in the Shop Removing the High-Voltage Batteries Storing the High-Voltage Batteries Hoisting a Hybrid Vehicle Paint Ovens HV Battery Disposal

23 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID FIGURE Use of a warning cover over the steering wheel helps others realize that work is being performed on the high-voltage system and that no one is to attempt to start or move the vehicle.

24 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID FIGURE A lock box is a safe location to keep the ignition keys of a hybrid electric vehicle while it is being serviced. Notice that this lock box has two separate locks so it would require two people to open, helping to ensure that no harm is done by accidentally attempting to start a HEV.

25 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID FIGURE Insulated tools, such as this socket set, would provide an additional margin of safety to the service technician when working around high- voltage components and systems.

26 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID FIGURE The high-voltage wiring on this Honda hybrid is colored orange for easy identification.

27 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ INSULATION TESTER To perform an insulation test, push the test button on the tester. It will perform the following: –The tester applies a test voltage on the meter leads. –The tester then measures the voltage and the current. –The tester then calculates the resistance and displays the reading.

28 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HV GLOVE USE

29 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HV GLOVE USE

30 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HV GLOVE USE

31 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HV GLOVE USE

32 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HV GLOVE USE

33 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HV GLOVE USE

34 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUMMARY 1.Personal protective equipment (PPE) for work on hybrid electric vehicles includes the wearing of high-voltage rubber gloves rated at 1,000 volts or more worn with leather protective gloves to help protect the rubber gloves. 2.A digital meter and meter leads that meet CAT III standards should be used when working around the highvoltage section of a hybrid electric vehicle. 3.Safety glasses and a face shield should be worn whenever working around the high-voltage circuits of a hybrid electric vehicle.

35 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUMMARY 4.The high-voltage system can be shut off by disconnecting the high-voltage circuits and being sure the ignition is off. Disconnecting the 12-volt battery is additional security that the high-voltage circuits are depowered. 5.For most situations, first responder actions should be the same as if the vehicle were conventional. 6.When servicing a hybrid electric vehicle, always observe recommended safety procedures.

36 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.What are the recommended items that should be used when working with the high-voltage circuits of a hybrid electric vehicle? 2.How can a hybrid electric vehicle be identified? 3.What actions are needed to disable the high-voltage (HV) circuit? 4.What precautions should first responders take to protect themselves and accident victims in the event of a collision or accident with a hybrid electric vehicle? 5.What are the precautions that service technicians should adhere to when servicing hybrid electric vehicles?

37 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 1.Rubber gloves should be worn whenever working on or near the high-voltage circuits or components of a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the rubber gloves should be rated at 1,000 volts or higher. Technician B says that leather gloves should be worn over the high-voltage rubber gloves. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

38 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 1.Rubber gloves should be worn whenever working on or near the high-voltage circuits or components of a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the rubber gloves should be rated at 1,000 volts or higher. Technician B says that leather gloves should be worn over the high-voltage rubber gloves. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

39 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 2.A CAT III–certified DMM should be used whenever measuring high-voltage circuits or components. The CAT III rating relates to _____. a)High voltage b)High energy c)High electrical resistance d)Both a and b

40 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 2.A CAT III–certified DMM should be used whenever measuring high-voltage circuits or components. The CAT III rating relates to _____. a)High voltage b)High energy c)High electrical resistance d)Both a and b

41 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 3.All of the following will shut off the high voltage to components and circuits, except _____. a)Opening the driver’s door b)Turning the ignition off c)Disconnecting the 12-volt auxiliary battery d)Removing the main fuse, relay, or HV plug

42 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 3.All of the following will shut off the high voltage to components and circuits, except _____. a)Opening the driver’s door b)Turning the ignition off c)Disconnecting the 12-volt auxiliary battery d)Removing the main fuse, relay, or HV plug

43 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 4.If the engine is not running, Technician A says that the highvoltage circuits are depowered. Technician B says that all high-voltage wiring is orange in color. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

44 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 4.If the engine is not running, Technician A says that the high-voltage circuits are depowered. Technician B says that all high-voltage wiring is orange in color. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

45 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 5.Which statement is false about high-voltage wiring? a)Connects the battery pack to the electric controller b)Connects the controller to the motor/generator c)Is electrically grounded to the frame (body) of the vehicle d)Is controlled by a relay that opens if the ignition is off

46 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 5.Which statement is false about high-voltage wiring? a)Connects the battery pack to the electric controller b)Connects the controller to the motor/generator c)Is electrically grounded to the frame (body) of the vehicle d)Is controlled by a relay that opens if the ignition is off

47 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 6.The electrolyte from a NiMH battery pack can be neutralized in the remote chance that it leaks by using _____. a)Water b)Baking soda c)Vinegar d)Baking powder

48 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 6.The electrolyte from a NiMH battery pack can be neutralized in the remote chance that it leaks by using _____. a)Water b)Baking soda c)Vinegar d)Baking powder

49 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 7.Two technicians are discussing jump-starting a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the high-voltage (HV) batteries can be jumped on some HEV models. Technician B says that the 12- volt auxiliary battery can be jumped using a conventional jump box or jumper cable. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

50 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 7.Two technicians are discussing jump-starting a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the high-voltage (HV) batteries can be jumped on some HEV models. Technician B says that the 12- volt auxiliary battery can be jumped using a conventional jump box or jumper cable. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

51 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 8.What can occur if a hybrid electric vehicle is pushed in the shop? a)The HV battery pack can be damaged. b)The tires will be locked unless the ignition is on. c)Damage to the electronic controller can occur. d)High voltage will be generated by the motor/generator.

52 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 8.What can occur if a hybrid electric vehicle is pushed in the shop? a)The HV battery pack can be damaged. b)The tires will be locked unless the ignition is on. c)Damage to the electronic controller can occur. d)High voltage will be generated by the motor/generator.

53 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 9.Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries can be damaged if exposed to temperatures higher than about _____. a)150°F (66°C) b)175°F (79°C) c)200°F (93°C) d)225°F (107°C)

54 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 9.Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries can be damaged if exposed to temperatures higher than about _____. a)150°F (66°C) b)175°F (79°C) c)200°F (93°C) d)225°F (107°C)

55 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 10.How should nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries be disposed of? a)In regular trash b)Call an 800 number shown under the hood of the vehicle for information c)Submerged in water and then disposed of in regular trash d)Burned at an EPA-certified plant

56 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 10.How should nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries be disposed of? a)In regular trash b)Call an 800 number shown under the hood of the vehicle for information c)Submerged in water and then disposed of in regular trash d)Burned at an EPA-certified plant


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