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D.A.R.E. AND COMMUNITY POLICING David L. Carter Michigan State University The information in this presentation was prepared for the WSU Regional Community.

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Presentation on theme: "D.A.R.E. AND COMMUNITY POLICING David L. Carter Michigan State University The information in this presentation was prepared for the WSU Regional Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 D.A.R.E. AND COMMUNITY POLICING David L. Carter Michigan State University The information in this presentation was prepared for the WSU Regional Community Policing Institute, by David L. Carter, Ph.D., National Center for Community Policing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI The information may be reproduced with attribution to both the WSU RCPI and the author.

2 Changing the Police Paradigm REFORM MODEL… Crime Fighters Experts Top Down Control Obedience Thin Blue Line Routine Numbers/Rules Driven COMMUNITY-BASED MODEL… Problem Solvers Partners Bottom Up Facilitate Autonomy Mini-chief Risk Taking Mission/Outcome Driven

3 Questions Police Executives Should Ask About Community Policing & D.A.R.E. Will it improve the department’s ability to provide efficient and effective service? Will it reduce crises and improve discretionary practices in the maintenance of order? Will it enhance the professional standards as well as the job satisfaction of the officers in the department? Will it respond to citizens’ concerns of crime, order maintenancen of these?

4 Questions Police Executives Should Ask About Community Policing & D.A.R.E. Will it streamline communications and coordination both… > Within the department? > Between the department and other organizations? > Between the department and the community? Will it respond to realistic problems within the community? Will it help plan for future strategies and problems within the community?

5 Community Policing and D.A.R.E. Have A “Hand in Glove” Relationship… Both philosophies have similar underpinnings > Both are proactive > Both are non-traditional > Both embrace “customer-oriented” problems > Both seek partnerships with the public + Community Policing—> Citizens + D.A.R.E.—> Students, Parents, Teachers Both challenge the traditional wisdom that the status quo has not worked > Community Policing—> Reactive policing; preventive patrol > D.A.R.E.—> Role of police; preventive behavior

6 Community Policing and D.A.R.E. Have A “Hand in Glove” Relationship… Officers who practice both are frequently ridiculed as not being “real cops” > Kiddie Cops; Lollipop Cops; Wave and Grin Squad Both embrace current management research and thought, notably Total quality Management > Customer oriented > Proactive > Problem solving > Service oriented (The British like to point out that they do not have a “Police Force” but rather a “Police Service”

7 Community Policing and D.A.R.E. Have A “Hand in Glove” Relationship… Both have evolved to respond to social and environmental change > Noteworthy because the police bureaucratic and paramilitary not known for change > Community policing evolved to incorporate POP and COP > D.A.R.E. evolved to include violence Both have developed support from politicians and citizens as innovative approaches to crime control > On one hand this provides resources and incentives… > It also increases police accountability

8 Community Policing and D.A.R.E. Have A “Hand in Glove” Relationship… Both have their critics > While critics can be a problem, enlightened leaders will listen to them because they sometimes have good insights > Some criticism is emotional, responding to change in the status quo rather than being rational, for example: the Kansas City Preventive Patrol Study > Academics and researchers who simply “look at the numbers” + How much crime did we prevent? + How do we quantify the value of “peace of mind” (e.g., 911 calls) + Research is sometime wrong or conflicting (e.g., domestic violence mandatory arrest)

9 Your Role in Organizational Change Create a vision—look to the future > This is a difficult process which does not come easily > Requires the courage to challenge conventional wisdom > Recognize there will be criticism > Define and articulate your vision Exercise your leadership (most effective via modeling) > Be fair to all > In the department… + Deal with the “morale has never been worse” issue + Be a coach and cheer leader > In the community… + Motivate the community + Be a good politician

10 Your Role in Organizational Change Be a change agent > This is a constant process; not a one-time practice > Remember, organizational change is very difficult Show commitment > Without demonstrated commitment—and some sacrifice—there is little reason for others to follow your leadership Have patience—time is a necessity > This goes against our national persona of wanting things done now > Change can take a generation, it cannot be “forced” Everything is more difficult than it appears

11 The Benefits of D.A.R.E. For Community Policing It “humanizes” the police—that is, young people can begin to relate to officers as people, not as a uniform or institution. It permits students to see police officers in a helping role, not just an enforcement role. It opens lines of communication between youth and the police It opens lines of communication between the school district and police to deal with a wide range of issues such as violence in the schools, drug abuse, or any other problem for which there is mutual concern.

12 It serves as a source of feedback to the police department to better understand the fears and concerns of youth in order to help the police develop problem-solving efforts which extend beyond drugs. It places the police in a different light with respect to many adults within the community; specifically parents, teachers, school staff, administrators, and school board members. Exposure to life in the public schools can broaden officers’ perspectives and understanding about concerns expressed by community members. The Benefits of D.A.R.E. For Community Policing

13 D.A.R.E. training is an instrument of socialization which introduces officers to a philosophy which measures success by community acceptance and support rather than the numbers of crimes and arrests. Using D.A.R.E. officers as a resource, the department can become more creative in developing problem-solving initiatives. D.A.R.E. officers can serve as a conduit to provide information to young people beyond drug-related matters, particularly in question and answer sessions. The Benefits of D.A.R.E. For Community Policing

14 D.A.R.E. can serve as a stimulus for youth to become more involved in other responsible activities such as the Police Explorers, Police Athletic League, or other youth-oriented initiatives. D.A.R.E. reduces peer pressure and balances values as related to all types of responsible behavior. The Benefits of D.A.R.E. For Community Policing

15 Barriers to Overcome… The resistance to change which affects the police and community alike. The desire to see successes in the short term, when change requires long-term re-socialization. The natural tendency of people to settle for the status quo rather than take risks. The unwillingness to recognize that even in failure we gain knowledge; sometimes how to modify an initiative which may ultimately lead to success. The lack of sincere commitment to invest effort, resources, and patience into a nontraditional venture.


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