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Chapter 15 Bleeding and Shock

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1 Chapter 15 Bleeding and Shock

2 Objectives Describe the cardio-respiratory system.
List the components of the circulatory system. Explain how blood circulates through the body. Explain what is meant by standard precautions. Define the three basic types of bleeding. Explain the dangers associated with shock.

3 Cardiorespiratory System
Cardiorespiratory system includes functions of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and gas exchange Important components Heart Blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) Lungs

4 Heart Responsible for pumping blood throughout the body Dimensions
5 inches long, 3.5 inches long Weighs less than a pound Beats 10,000 times a day 8000 gallons of blood through vessels Pumps times a minute Slower HR for those in better shape

5 Structure of Heart Four cavities
Left/Right Atria Left/Right Ventricle Left and right sides separated by septum Superior and inferior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery and vein

6 Blood Flow Through Heart
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Artery Lung

7 Blood Flow Through Heart
Lung Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Aortic Valve Aorta

8 Blood Approx 5 quarts of blood in adult body
Carries oxygen and nutrients to body Transports waste products back to lungs, kidneys, and liver Essential to immune system, temperature balance, hormone messenger

9 Components of Blood Plasma: yellowish liquid, 55% of total volume of blood Red blood cell: transports oxygen Hemoglobin Hematocrit White blood cell: defense cells Platelets: helps with blood clots All of these are produced in bone marrow

10 Blood Vessels Arteries: carry blood from heart to the body, oxygenated
Arterioles: small arteries Veins: carry blood back to heart, one way valves Veins in legs are surrounded by large muscle groups that compress veins when contracted Venules: small veins

11 Blood Vessels Capillaries: connects arteries and veins, responsible for transferring oxygen and nutrients to cells Coronary Arteries: heart’s own system of blood vessels

12 Blood Pressure Measurement of the pressure against blood vessel walls
Systolic (top number): ventricle contraction Diastolic (lower number): ventricle relaxation

13 Blood Pressure Measured using a sphygmomanometer at brachial artery
Average is 120/80 Athletes usually lower Factors affecting blood pressure: stress, nutrition, disease, drugs, exercise, family history

14 Pulse Rhythmical beating of the heart Pulse Points Brachial Artery
Commom Carotid Artery Femoral Artery Dorsalis Pedis Artery Popliteal Artery Radial Artery Temporal Artery Posterior Tibial Artery

15 Find Pulse Should take pulse with first two fingers, not thumb
Carotid Artery: anterior border of sternocleidomastoid Radial Artery: lateral of wrist Dorsalis Pedis Artery: top of foot, lateral to extensor hallucis longus Tibialis Posterior Artery: medial side of ankle

16 Personal Protective Equipment
Should be used when coming in contact with blood or other body fluids Gloves Protective Eyewear Surgical Mask

17 Removal of Gloves Grasp the palm or cuff of the left glove with the gloved right hand. Pull the left glove toward the fingertips so the glove ends up inside out. Holding the removed glove in the gloved right hand, insert 2 fingers from the left hand under the cuff of the right glove. Pull the right glove toward the fingertips of the right hand, ending up with the glove inside out and the left glove captured within the right glove.

18 Bleeding Arterial: can be severe, spurts
Venous: less severe but can be profuse, bluish red blood Capillary: slow bleeding, higher risk of infection

19 Shock Shock is a failure of the circulatory system to oxygenate vital organs Variety of causes Signs and Symptoms Weak rapid pulse Cold clammy skin Pale Shallow respiration Nausea and vomiting

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