2 Objectives Describe the cardio-respiratory system. List the components of the circulatory system.Explain how blood circulates through the body.Explain what is meant by standard precautions.Define the three basic types of bleeding.Explain the dangers associated with shock.
3 Cardiorespiratory System Cardiorespiratory system includes functions of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and gas exchangeImportant componentsHeartBlood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries)Lungs
4 Heart Responsible for pumping blood throughout the body Dimensions 5 inches long, 3.5 inches longWeighs less than a poundBeats 10,000 times a day8000 gallons of blood through vesselsPumps times a minuteSlower HR for those in better shape
5 Structure of Heart Four cavities Left/Right AtriaLeft/Right VentricleLeft and right sides separated by septumSuperior and inferior vena cavaAortaPulmonary artery and vein
6 Blood Flow Through Heart Superior and Inferior Vena CavaRight AtriumTricuspid ValveRight VentriclePulmonary ValvePulmonary ArteryLung
8 Blood Approx 5 quarts of blood in adult body Carries oxygen and nutrients to bodyTransports waste products back to lungs, kidneys, and liverEssential to immune system, temperature balance, hormone messenger
9 Components of BloodPlasma: yellowish liquid, 55% of total volume of bloodRed blood cell: transports oxygenHemoglobinHematocritWhite blood cell: defense cellsPlatelets: helps with blood clotsAll of these are produced in bone marrow
10 Blood Vessels Arteries: carry blood from heart to the body, oxygenated Arterioles: small arteriesVeins: carry blood back to heart, one way valvesVeins in legs are surrounded by large muscle groups that compress veins when contractedVenules: small veins
11 Blood VesselsCapillaries: connects arteries and veins, responsible for transferring oxygen and nutrients to cellsCoronary Arteries: heart’s own system of blood vessels
12 Blood Pressure Measurement of the pressure against blood vessel walls Systolic (top number): ventricle contractionDiastolic (lower number): ventricle relaxation
13 Blood Pressure Measured using a sphygmomanometer at brachial artery Average is 120/80Athletes usually lowerFactors affecting blood pressure: stress, nutrition, disease, drugs, exercise, family history
15 Find Pulse Should take pulse with first two fingers, not thumb Carotid Artery: anterior border of sternocleidomastoidRadial Artery: lateral of wristDorsalis Pedis Artery: top of foot, lateral to extensor hallucis longusTibialis Posterior Artery: medial side of ankle
16 Personal Protective Equipment Should be used when coming in contact with blood or other body fluidsGlovesProtective EyewearSurgical Mask
17 Removal of GlovesGrasp the palm or cuff of the left glove with the gloved right hand.Pull the left glove toward the fingertips so the glove ends up inside out.Holding the removed glove in the gloved right hand, insert 2 fingers from the left hand under the cuff of the right glove.Pull the right glove toward the fingertips of the right hand, ending up with the glove inside out and the left glove captured within the right glove.
18 Bleeding Arterial: can be severe, spurts Venous: less severe but can be profuse, bluish red bloodCapillary: slow bleeding, higher risk of infection
19 ShockShock is a failure of the circulatory system to oxygenate vital organsVariety of causesSigns and SymptomsWeak rapid pulseCold clammy skinPaleShallow respirationNausea and vomiting