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McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Health Science Core Chapter 9 McFatter Technical Center Emergency Medical Technician - Basic.

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Presentation on theme: "McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Health Science Core Chapter 9 McFatter Technical Center Emergency Medical Technician - Basic."— Presentation transcript:

1 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Health Science Core Chapter 9 McFatter Technical Center Emergency Medical Technician - Basic

2 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Chapter 9 Infection Control

3 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Government agency responsible for protecting public health through prevention and control of disease Established guidelines for safe work environments for employees Requires employer to training employees in management of infectious and hazardous waste products

4 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Infection Cycle Environment is filled with microorganisms Various ways infection can be transmitted Chain of events that that describe the origin and transmission of a disease or illness Reservoir Host Portal of Exit Route of transmission Portal of Entry Susceptible Host

5 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Infection Cycle 1.Reservoir Host – where the organism reside Animals Water Air Soil Humans

6 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Infection Cycle 2. Portal of exit – route by which the pathogen leaves where it resides Breaks in the skin Respiratory secretions Reproductive secretions Blood

7 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Infection Cycle 3.Route of Transmission – method by which the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host Direct contact Air insects

8 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Infection Cycle 4. Portal of Entry – Route the pathogen enters the new host Respiratory tract Gastrointestinal tract Urinary tract Reproductive tract Break in protective skin barrier

9 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Infection Cycle 5. Susceptible Host – person capable of being affected or infected by invading microorganisms Malnourished Suppressed immune system Poor health

10 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Interruption of the Infection Cycle Reservoir Host: –Identify pathogen and provide treatment –Maintain proper personal hygiene –Disinfect and sanitize work environment Portal of Exit: –Wear proper attire –Control body secretions –Wash hands

11 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Interruption of the Infection Cycle Route of Transmission: –Properly dispose all infected material –Isolate infected patients from others –Do not work if you are infected Portal of Entry: –Good Aseptic, disinfection, and sterilization Susceptible Host: –Identify high risk patients and avoid unnecessary exposure

12 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Microorganisms and Disease Organism – any living thing that is composed of one cell Microorganism – organism that is not visible with the naked eye Pathogen – disease causing microorganism Fungi – simple plant. Only mold and yeast can cause disease Mold Yeast

13 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Microorganisms and Disease Protozoa – a single celled animal that can cause disease Virus: –microscopic parasitic organism capable of causing infectious disease –Can only be seen with electron microscope –Not affected by antibiotics –Get food and nutrients from the cell in which they are living Protozoa Herpes Virus

14 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Microorganisms and Disease Bacteria: –single celled microorganism –Grows with and without oxygen –Many different shapes –Spores are bacteria that are incased in a protective shell Staphylococcus Bacilli Bacteria StreptococciSpirilla

15 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Asepsis Sterile preventing infection Clean techniques: –Hand washing –Wearing clean uniform –Not touching you hair or face with your hands –Holding contaminated items away from you

16 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 When to Hand Washing When you arrive to work Before performing a procedure on a patient During a procedure when your hands become contaminated Between patient care After using the restroom After removing gloves Before eating

17 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Disinfection Methods 1.Bleach – use spray bottle and fill with 10% bleach. Fill the other 90% with water Germicide: –Many different product and must read what it disinfects –Prefer to bleach because it does not corrode metal

18 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Sterilization Methods Free from all microorganisms Autoclave uses heat and steam under pressure Gas sterilization is used when autoclaves can damage the product Normally wrapped in plastic to protect Autoclaves Gas Sterilizer

19 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Sterile Technique 1.Wash you hands 2.Assemble all the equipment 3.Open all packages 4.Do not touch anything sterile 5.Do not reach across a sterile field 6.Hold sterile items at waist level

20 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Sterile Technique 9. Pouring liquid in a sterile container, do not touch the rim 10. Put on sterile gloves 11. Do not cough, sneeze, or talk over sterile field 12. Never leave a sterile field unsupervised

21 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Donning Sterile Gloves 1.Obtain pair of sterile gloves in your hand size. 2.Inspect glove package for signs of contamination 3.Remove jewelry and scrub hands. 4.Dry your hands. 5.Peel open the sterile package. 6.Grab the inner part of the glove and slide in hand

22 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Donning Sterile Gloves 7.Pull glove to wrist 8.With sterile glove hand, grab the under part of the cuff and slide hand into glove. 9.Pull glove to wrist. (Do not touch inside of glove)

23 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Donning Sterile Gloves 10.Flip cuff and pull over gown. 11.Slide completed sterile glove hand under the cuff of the other hand and flip cuff and pull over gown. 12.Interlock hands to prevent touching an unsterile area.

24 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Removing Gloves 1.Pinch at the wrist area of the glove and pull glove off. 2.Use inside of the discarded glove to pinch the other glove or Slide hand under the glove and pull glove off

25 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Removing Sterile Gloves 4.Make sure you do not touch the contaiminated part of the glove. 5.Discard glove in proper bag. 6.Wash hands.

26 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Contaminated Sharps All needles, scalpel blades, and sharp objects need to be disposed in puncture resistant container Never recap, bend, or manually remove a dirty needle. Never carry needles or sharps toward people. Always point them toward the floor.

27 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 CDC Guidelines Standard precautions – guideline for protecting healthcare workers from exposure to blood- borne pathogens in body secretions. Transmission based precautions – guidelines to prevent transmission of specific infectious and communicable disease of patients suspected or confirmed.

28 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Modes of Transmission Contact –Direct – touching an infected patient –Indirect – touching inanimate object that was in contact with an infected patient Droplet – droplets emitted by coughing, sneezing, talking, singing, or ventilation. Airborne – nuclei of evaporated infected droplets

29 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Transmission Based Precautions Wear gloves whenever in contact with body secretions Cover cuts and other lesions with plastic bandage Wear protective eye wear and mask during procedures with possible splattering of body fluids. Wear disposable gowns with possible splattering of body fluids

30 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 Transmission Based Precautions Properly dispose of sharps. Avoid direct patient contact when you have an open wound Wash you hands Use disinfectant solution to clean equipment Avoid giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation; instead use a barrier device or mask.

31 McFatter Technical CenterRevised: January 2008 References Pollak, Andrew N. Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. 9th ed. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, Stevens, Kay, and Garber, Debra. Introduction to Clinical Allied Healthcare. 2nd ed. Clifton Park, New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 1996.


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