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**Diffusion – And Its Role In Material Property Control**

R. Lindeke, Ph. D. Engr 2110

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DIFFUSION IN LIQUIDS IN GASES IN SOLIDS Carburization Surface coating

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**This is called a DIFFUSION COUPLE a sketch of Cu – Ni here**

• Interdiffusion: In an alloy, atoms tend to migrate from regions of high conc. to regions of low conc. Initially After some time Adapted from Figs. 5.1 and 5.2, Callister 7e. This is called a DIFFUSION COUPLE a sketch of Cu – Ni here

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**Diffusion Mechanisms Vacancy Diffusion:**

• atoms exchange with vacancies • applies to the atoms of substitutional impurities • rate depends on: -- number of vacancies -- activation energy to exchange – a function of temp. and size effects. increasing elapsed time

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**More rapid than vacancy diffusion**

Diffusion Mechanisms Interstitial diffusion – smaller atoms can diffuse between atoms. this is essentially mechanism in amorphous materials such as polymer membranes More rapid than vacancy diffusion Adapted from Fig. 5.3 (b), Callister 7e.

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**Processing Using Diffusion**

Case Hardening: Diffuse carbon atoms into the host iron atoms at the surface. Example of interstitial diffusion to produce a surface (case) hardened gear. Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 5, Callister 7e. (Courtesy of Surface Division, Midland-Ross.) The carbon atoms (interstitially) diffuse from a carbon rich atmosphere into the steel thru the surface. Result: The presence of C atoms makes the iron (steel) surface harder.

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Diffusion How do we quantify the amount or rate of diffusion? – we define a “mass flux” value Flux is Commonly Measured empirically Make thin film (membrane) of known surface area Impose concentration gradient (high conc. On 1 side low on the other) Measure how fast atoms or molecules diffuse through the membrane M = mass diffused time J slope

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**Simplest Case: Steady-State Diffusion**

The Rate of diffusion is independent of time Flux is proportional to concentration gradient = C1 C2 x x1 x2 This model is captured as Fick’s first law of diffusion D diffusion coefficient which is a function of diffusing species and temperature For steady state diffusion concentration gradient = dC/dx is linear

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**F.F.L. Example: Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC)**

Methylene chloride is a common ingredient in paint removers. Besides being an irritant, it also may be absorbed through skin. When using this paint remover, protective gloves should be worn. If butyl rubber gloves (0.04 cm thick) are used, what is the diffusive flux of methylene chloride through the glove? Data: diffusion coefficient in butyl rubber: D = 110 x10-8 cm2/s surface concentrations: C1 = 0.44 g/cm3 C2 = 0.02 g/cm3

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**Example (cont). Solution – assuming linear conc. gradient Data: glove**

paint remover skin C2 D = 110 x 10-8 cm2/s C2 = 0.02 g/cm3 C1 = 0.44 g/cm3 x2 – x1 = 0.04 cm Data: x1 x2

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**What happens to a Worker?**

If a person is in contact with the irritant and more than about 0.5 gm of the irritant is deposited on their skin they need to take a wash break If 25 cm2 of glove is in the paint thinner can, How Long will it take before they must take a wash break?

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**Another Example: Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC)**

If butyl rubber gloves (0.04 cm thick) are used, what is the breakthrough time (tb), i.e., how long could the gloves be used before methylene chloride reaches the hand? Data (from Table 22.5) diffusion coefficient in butyl rubber: D = 110 x10-8 cm2/s

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**Example (cont). Solution – assuming linear conc. gradient**

glove C1 C2 skin paint remover x1 x2 Equation 22.24 D = 110 x 10-8 cm2/s Time required for breakthrough ca. 4 min

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**Diffusion and Temperature**

• Diffusion coefficient increases with increasing T D = Do exp æ è ç ö ø ÷ - Qd R T = pre-exponential [m2/s] = diffusion coefficient [m2/s] = activation energy [J/mol or eV/atom] = gas constant [8.314 J/mol-K] = absolute temperature [K]

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**Diffusion and Temperature**

D has exponential dependence on T 1000 K/T D (m2/s) C in a-Fe C in g-Fe Al in Al Fe in a-Fe Fe in g-Fe 0.5 1.0 1.5 10-20 10-14 10-8 T(C) 1500 1000 600 300 So Note: D interstitial >> D substitutional C in a-Fe C in g-Fe Al in Al Fe in a-Fe Fe in g-Fe Adapted from Fig. 5.7, Callister 7e. (Date for Fig. 5.7 taken from E.A. Brandes and G.B. Brook (Ed.) Smithells Metals Reference Book, 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1992.)

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**What is the diffusion coefficient at 350ºC?**

Example: At 300ºC the diffusion coefficient and activation energy for Cu in Si are D(300ºC) = 7.8 x m2/s Qd = 41.5 kJ/mol What is the diffusion coefficient at 350ºC? transform data D Temp = T ln D 1/T

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**Example (cont.) T1 = 273 + 300 = 573 K T2 = 273 + 350 = 623 K**

D2 = 15.7 x m2/s

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**Non-steady State Diffusion**

If the concentration of diffusing species is a function of both time and position that is C = C(x,t) In this case Fick’s Second Law is used Fick’s Second Law In the non-steady state the concentration profile develops with time. Concentration (C) in terms of time and position can be obtained by solving above equation with knowledge of boundary conditions The solution depends on the specific case we are treating

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One practically important solution is for a semi-infinite solid in which the surface concentration is held constant. Frequently source of the diffusing species is a gas phase, which is maintained at a constant pressure value. A bar of length l is considered to be semi-infinite when The following assumptions are implied for a good solution: Before diffusion, any of the diffusing solute atoms in the solid are uniformly distributed with concentration of C0. The value of x (position in the solid) at the surface is zero and increases with distance into the solid. The time is taken to be zero the instant before the diffusion process begins.

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**Non-steady State Diffusion**

• Copper diffuses into a bar of aluminum. pre-existing conc., Co of copper atoms Surface conc., C of Cu atoms bar s C s Adapted from Fig. 5.5, Callister 7e. Notice: the concentration decreases at increasing x (from surface) while it increases at a given x as time increases! Boundary Conditions: at t = 0, C = Co for 0 x at t > 0, C = CS for x = 0 (const. surf. conc.) C = Co for x =

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**Solution: C(x,t) = Conc. at point x at time t erf (z) = error function**

erf(z) values are given in Table 5.1 CS C(x,t) Co

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**Non-steady State Diffusion**

Sample Problem: An FCC iron-carbon alloy initially containing 0.20 wt% C is carburized at an elevated temperature and in an atmosphere that gives a surface carbon concentration (C0 ) constant at 1.0 wt%. If after 49.5 h the concentration of carbon is 0.35 wt% at a position 4.0 mm below the surface, determine the temperature at which the treatment was carried out. Solution: use Eqn. 5.5

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Notice that the solution requires the use of the erf function which was developed to model conduction along a semi-infinite rod as we saw earlier

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**Solution (cont.): t = 49.5 h x = 4 x 10-3 m Cx = 0.35 wt% Cs = 1.0 wt%**

Co = 0.20 wt% erf(z) =

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Solution (cont.): We must now determine from Table 5.1 the value of z for which the error function is An interpolation is necessary as follows z erf(z) z Now By LINEAR Interpolation: z = 0.93 Now solve for D

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**Solution (cont.): from Table 5.2, for diffusion of C in FCC Fe**

To solve for the temperature at which D has above value, we use a rearranged form of Equation (5.9a): from Table 5.2, for diffusion of C in FCC Fe Do = 2.3 x 10-5 m2/s Qd = 148,000 J/mol T = 1300 K = 1027°C

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**Following Up: In industry one may wish to speed up this process**

This can be accomplished by increasing Temperature of the process Surface concentration of the diffusing species If we choose to increase the temperature, determine how long it will take to reach the same concentration at the same depth as in the previous study?

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**Diffusion time calculation:**

X and concentration are equal therefore: D*t = constant for non-steady state diffusion! D1300 = 2.6x10-11m2/s (1027C)

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**Summary Diffusion FASTER for... Diffusion SLOWER for...**

• open crystal structures • materials w/secondary bonding • smaller diffusing atoms • lower density materials Diffusion SLOWER for... • close-packed structures • materials w/covalent bonding • larger diffusing atoms • higher density materials

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