Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sep 19th 2012. THE PRESENTATION Introduction This presentation has 2 parts Part 1 :is about giving a broad idea about the concepts of Optical Fiber and.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Sep 19th 2012. THE PRESENTATION Introduction This presentation has 2 parts Part 1 :is about giving a broad idea about the concepts of Optical Fiber and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sep 19th 2012

2 THE PRESENTATION Introduction This presentation has 2 parts Part 1 :is about giving a broad idea about the concepts of Optical Fiber and OF Cables, (OPGW, Lashed cables, ADSS, Under Ground & Duct Cables ) without going into the deep technicalities. Part 2 :is about fiber communication in Electrical Utilities and its applications. Sep 19th 2012

3 Part Fiber Optic Technology Sep 19th 2012

4 WHAT ARE OPTICAL FIBERS ? Optical Fibers are thins long (km) strands of ultra pure glass (silica) or plastic that can to transmit light from one end to another without much attenuation or loss. Sep 19th 2012 Fiber Construction Fiber cables consists of 3 parts 1-Core: it is where the light propagates and have the biggest refractive index. 2-Clad:part of the light wave propagate and have lower refractive index value 3-Caut:the output cover

5 Light Propagation Light propagates due to total internal reflection Light > critical angle will be confined to the core Light < critical angle will be lost in the cladding

6 Multi-Mode 50/62.5um core, 125um clad Atten-dB/km: 850nm Single-Mode 9um core, 125um cladding Atten-dB/km: 0.4/0.3dB 1310nm/1550nm Fiber Types

7 © 2006, VDV Works LLC Fiber Types

8 Factors that affect the Light wave through propagation 1.Refractive index n for core and clade. 2.Fiber attenuation 3.Dispersion Sep 19th 2012

9 Fiber Attenuation Fiber Attenuation ( reduces the power of the signal) The two main loss mechanisms in fiber is absorption and scattering, 1-Light absorption: As light passes through fiber it is absorbed and converted into heat, due to molecular resonance, for example hydrogen and hydroxide resonance occurs at 1244 nm and 1383 nm. 2-Rayleigh scattering: Scattering causes the dispersion of light energy in all directions, and one of the directions is the backward direction in this case the scattering is called "backscattering". Forward light scattering (Raman scattering) and backward light scattering (Brillouin scattering) are two additional types of scattering those can occur under high power conditions. Sep 19th 2012

10 Attenuation Vs. Wavelength Attenuation depends on fiber type and wavelength of the transmitted signal

11 Dispersion Dispersion (reduces the effective bandwidth available for transmission ) There are three types of dispersion: 1- Modal Dispersion (MD) for multimode fiber. Modal Dispersion typically occurs in multimode fiber, due to its large core diameter, for example 62.5 um, it carries many modes those travel through different paths thus a short pulse that consists of many modes will spread because each mode will reach the destination in a different time. Sep 19th 2012

12 Dispersion 2- Chromatic Dispersion (CD). Chromatic Dispersion is about the difference in speed between the various wavelengths contained in a light pulse, each light pulse consists of many wavelengths, each wavelength travels on its own speed down the fiber, thus it reaches the destination in a different time than other wavelengths, which results in the pulse broadening phenomena, please see the below figure: Sep 19th 2012

13 Dispersion 3- Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD).(significant for speeds more than 10Gb/s for single mode fiber. Different polarizations travels through different paths thus different lengths down the fiber which leads to different arrival time at the destination, this difference in speed comes from the fact that a fiber core is perfectly a circle all the fiber length, also mechanical stresses twisting, bending, and temperature variations all cause PMD to change, that`s why its not a fixed value like the CD. Sep 19th 2012

14 © 2006, VDV Works LLC Fiber Optic Link Power Budget

15 Part Fiber Optic Cable Types Sep 19th 2012

16 VARIOUS TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER CABLES Aerial types: 1.OPGW Cable 2.ADSS type OF Cable 3.LASHED type OF Cable UNDERGROUND types 1.BURRIED type OF Cables 2.DUCT Type OF Cable Submarine types: Nepco have 2 fiber submarine cables (each of 12 fiber strands) laid between Aqaba to Taba at Egypt crossing Aqaba Gulf (13km) with the power cable that connects the power Grid between Jordan and Egypt at 400kv level. Sep 19th 2012

17

18

19 WRAP AROUND ADSS Aerial FIBRE OPTIC CABLE INSTALLATION OPGW Sep 19th 2012

20 UNDERGROUND / BURRIED type OF Cables Sep 19th 2012

21 DUCT Type OF Cable Sep 19th 2012

22 Part Fiber Optic Splicing Sep 19th 2012

23 Fiber Splicing 1.Fusion Splicing: through splice machine using electrodes, Nepco has different types of splice machines like Fujikura 40s, 50 s & 60 s 2.Mechanical Splicing: for connectors Sep 19th 2012

24 Splicing at the Field Sep 19th 2012

25 © 2006, VDV Works LLC Fiber Optic Connectors & Splices Connectors – Demountable terminations for fiber – Connect to transmitters and receivers Splices – Permanent termination of two fibers

26 Part Fiber Optic Testing Sep 19th 2012

27 Fiber Optic Testing Fiber testing is made through two main ways 1.Laser source and power meter test : the motive of this test is to check the continuity of the fiber from end to end. Sep 19th 2012

28 End to End Testing Both units must be referenced with the test jumpers Confirm power source is connected to test fiber Reading is only accurate if both units at same wavelength

29 Fiber Testing 2.OTDR test: this test is done to check the quality of the trace including splice points, bending locations, optical reflection loss (ORL) and determine the location of any fault if exist through calculating the time and speed of the light Sep 19th 2012

30 OTDR Trace Sep 19th 2012

31 TEST AND MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS OPTICAL TALK SETS OTDR POWER METER, LASER SOURCE, ATTENUATOR TOOL KIT Sep 19th 2012

32 Introduction to OTDR OTDR stands for Optical Time Domain Reflectometer, the main function of an OTDR is to detect, locate and measure all the events (splices, connectors, bending, etc..), an report the location of each event with accuracy ranges from 4 cm to 40 meters. An OTDR utilizes the idea of a RADAR you can think of it as a one dimensional RADAR, using OTDR we get a full report of losses as well as reflective events (connectors and mechanical splices) tied to the distance or the geographical information of an optical fiber link. OTDR makes use of the small signals those travel back the fiber, even by backscattering or by reflection comparing their power levels and arrival time with its sent signals it can generate a nice report of what events are on a fiber link.backscattering Sep 19th 2012

33 Optical Fiber Standards – IEC and -2: Optical fibers (includes several parts) – IEC , -2, and -3: Optical fiber cables – G.651: Characteristics of 50/125 μm multimode graded- index optical fiber – G.652: Characteristics of singlemode optical fiber and cable – G.653: Characteristics of singlemode dispersion shifted optical fiber and cable – G.654: Characteristics of cut-off shifted singlemode optical fiber and cable – G.655: Characteristics of non-zero dispersion shifted singlemode optical fiber and cable – G.656: Characteristics of non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for wideband transport Sep 19th 2012

34 Part Fiber Optic at Electric Utilities Sep 19th 2012

35 Why Fiber at Electric Utilities 2.Immunity to EMI, electric substations are full of noise and harmonics generated through switching operations. Sep 19th It is there: As mentioned before,OPGW fiber cables are installed on most of the OHLs in the transmission network because of its law cost.

36 Why Fiber at Electric Utilities 4.Lower attenuation: which means longer distances for the working sections connecting far places together into one network. Sep 19th Greater Bandwidth: you can go up to 10ths of Gb/s using fiber cables which opens the door for vast number of applications and services

37 5.Great revenues through fiber leasing. Sep 19th 2012 Why Fiber at Electric Utilities

38 NEPCO communication strategy is based on diversity in communication equipment and media to ensure high availability rates without interruption for vital services, i.e digital power line carriers (PLC) which uses the phase conductor of the OHL for transmitting signals and data between substations is used as backup in case fiber cut occurs. NEPCO has built fiber rings and installed high speed TDM SDH multiplexers with rates starting from STM-1 level(155Mb/s) up to STM-16 (622Mb/s) to operate on the OPGW network in a single managed platform covering most of the substations. Sep 19th 2012 National Electric Power Company Communication Strategy

39 Electric Utilities Communication Needs Many communication needs for higher bandwidth have emerged in the past years for the power sector increasing the quality of the grid and they are as follows, 1.Powerful control center that controls all the substations in the network through Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connected through communication channels in a secure and reliable way, SCADA system communication protocols has been developed from hundreds of baud rate up to Ethernet (100Mb/s), Nepco recently upgraded most of the SCADA communication channels through its fiber optic network Sep 19th 2012

40 Electric Utilities Communication Needs Sep 19th 2012

41 2.Metering systems developed quickly and trends to remote reading for the meters as part of the Smart Grid applications including billing services, at the end of the next year mainly all meters at Nepco will be connected through high speed communication channels to the main AMR system. Sep 19th 2012 Electric Utilities Communication Needs

42 3. Teleprotection for OHLs and substations. Sep 19th 2012 Electric Utilities Communication Needs

43 4. Powerful Telephone network through installing many Pbxs in the substations to connect the control center with power stations to facilitate the operation of the electricity grid Sep 19th 2012 Electric Utilities Communication Needs

44 5. Power quality applications Nepco installed some units and they are connected through fiber network Sep 19th 2012 Electric Utilities Communication Needs

45 Installing security CCTV systems at the substations, warehouses and headquarters and transmit the high bandwidth video signals to a centralized security center through the fiber network Sep 19th 2012 Other applications

46 Part Fiber Optic Investment at NEPCO Sep 19th 2012

47 NEPCO FIBER NETWORK NEPCO fiber network covers most of the OHLs holding fiber capacities starting from 6 strands up to 48 strands per cable, NEPCO fiber network exceeds 1200 km in length covering all the cities in Jordan from Aqaba south up to Ramtha North. NEPCO strategy is to install 32f OPGW cables on all new OHLs and 48f strands with the underground fiber cables. Sep 19th 2012

48 NEPCO FIBER NETWORK NEPCO fiber network reaches the neighboring countries such as Syria and Egypt. NEPCO is connected to Syria through an OPGW 16f cable with the Syrian power tie line (132kv) between AN substation at Jordan and Dier Ali substation at Syria Sep 19th 2012

49 NEPCO FIBER NETWORK NEPCO is connected to Egypt through 2 submarine fiber cables each of 12f crossing the Gulf of Aqaba (13km ) with the Egyptian tie line between Aqaba and Taba at Sep 19th 2012

50 NEPCO FIBER NETWORK NEPCO uses about 15-20% from its fiber network for its own purposes, i.e. about 4 strands per each cable. 85% of NEPCO fiber network is DARK (not lighted), so a decision is taken by the administration to lease the excess fiber capacity which has a great benefit from a financial point of view from one hand and supports the Jordanian fiber network which improves the whole communication infra structure of the country. Sep 19th 2012

51 NEPCO already hosts the Universities Fiber Network which connects 9 governmental universities in Jordan. NBN fiber network

52 Fiber Connection to Egypt Sep 19th 2012

53 Fiber connection to Syria Sep 19th 2012

54 NEPCO FIBER NETWORK Sep 19th 2012

55 THANK YOU THE END TEL:


Download ppt "Sep 19th 2012. THE PRESENTATION Introduction This presentation has 2 parts Part 1 :is about giving a broad idea about the concepts of Optical Fiber and."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google