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How to Construct Effective Case for PBL Arnuparp Lekhakula Faculty of Medicine Prince of Songkla University Hat Yai, Songkhla.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Construct Effective Case for PBL Arnuparp Lekhakula Faculty of Medicine Prince of Songkla University Hat Yai, Songkhla."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Construct Effective Case for PBL Arnuparp Lekhakula Faculty of Medicine Prince of Songkla University Hat Yai, Songkhla

2 Scope of Presentation Roles of problem in PBL How to write an learning problem Characteristics of an effective problem Assessment of problem Exercise Discussion

3 What is the roles of Problem in PBL?

4 Factors affecting the Quality of Problem-based Curriculum Relevance Quality of problems Group functioning Tutor performance Skills training Learning resources

5 Theoretical Model of PBL Schmidt & Gijselaers, 1990 Amount of prior knowledge Facilitator performance Quality of problem Group function Interest in subject matter Achievement Time spent in individual study

6 What is a Problem/Case? “A series of phenomenon in relation one to the other that demand explanation”

7 Use of Learning Problems Stimulus for learning and acquiring new knowledge Learning problems provide a structure for organizing learning which allows students to discover : what they know what they don’t know what they need to know

8 Use of Learning Problems Focal for organizing new knowledge Provide space for inquiry and discovery with no single correct answer Develop students to be real work ready via authentic learning environment Develop students to be change ready via reasoning, problem solving, self- directed learning and team skills

9 Each Problem is Multidimensional... Create a knowledge base rich in connections Integrate important knowledge in a professional context close to actual conditions for use Encourage elaboration of prior knowledge Wider perspectives

10 How to write effective learning problem?

11 PBL Case Development Process Macro Planning Dealing with overall curriculum integration among all contributing departments Micro Planning Writing cases for specific PBL tutorials

12 Macro Planning Steps Appoint a steering committee Designate a ‘gold standard’ content outlines as the reference point Design a comprehensive blueprint which ‘maps’ the entire PBL curriculum Appoint interdisciplinary planning teams Designate learning issues Write cases Create within-phase and between-phase case review teams to provide feedback

13 Problem Framework When in the unit sequence should the problem be presented? What is the level of the students? How much time will be allowed for independent study? What concepts should the student discover? What would be the most appropriate and stimulating format for the problem?

14 Micro Planning - Case Writing (1) Identify the curricular phase in which the case will appear Choose a central idea, concept and principle Formulate the objectives to be achieved by students Identify priority problems or situations Think of the real world context for the concept

15 Outcome C O N T E N T Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 5

16 StudentsTeachers ObjectivesLearning issues Problems

17 Essential Values of PBL and Implication on Designing Problem Values Implication Constructivism Builds on prior knowledge Meta-cognitivism Engages inquiry learning and deep thinking Authenticity Presented in the same format as in the work place

18 Essential Values of PBL and Implication on Designing Problem Values Implication Integrated knowledge Cut across disciplines base Student-centered Develops self-directed Learning learning skills Learning in small Complex enough to groups enable students to work in collaboration with one another

19 Justification Criteria for Problem Selection Prevalence Updated and timely Urgency or emergency Intervention Gravity Educative example/prototype Prevention Authentic/Real situation

20 Micro Planning - Case Writing (2) Further details sub-topics if necessary Designate context issue Assemble and master checklist of the learning objectives (LO) identified Rough outline a scenario in which the designates LO’s can be embedded Choose the presentation of problem

21 Presentation of Learning Problems Paper cases Description of phenomena Video (audio) triggers Models or 3D triggers Photographs/pictures Graph/curve Live client interview Simulated client Facilitator role play client

22 Micro Planning - Case Writing (3) As you write the case, specify which LO’s are embedded in each page Circulate the completed case to reviewers in appropriate disciplines If feasible, try-out the case with students Prepare a detailed tutor guide that will allow someone other than yourself to conduct the tutorial Identify resources

23 Problem Worksheet Facts List facts from the given cases to support your ideas Ideas Possible ideas that you can generate List as many as you can Learning issues What you need to learn in order to solve the problem. Assess what you do not know and what you need to know Learning resources Identify the possible sources of information

24 Problem Format Consistent format Title and picture Problem pages Tutor guide References and resources List of associated sessions

25 Checklist - Does the problem…... allow the students to problem solve or reason in order to deal successfully within the problems? fit at the right level and sequence? allow sufficient time to think? have a steady pace through the objectives? have the appropriate resources? need more expert consultation? have the best format/presentation style?

26 What are the characteristics of an effective problem?

27 Characteristics of PBL Cases Relevant, realistic, logical An appropriate level of complexity Mirror real work demands and relevant to the course of study Multi-disciplinary Refer to previous knowledge

28 Lead to the discovery of all concepts Enough issues for analysis and in-depth study Motivating and interesting Updated and timely Enough time available to study issues Characteristics of PBL Cases (2)

29 Well written, clear and concise Normal reference values are included Not too many distractors or red herrings Avoid overlap with other sessions Confine second session to discussion and wrap-up - no new issues Characteristics of PBL Cases (3)

30 Problem Emphasis - Early Years Introductory concepts, vocabulary Build knowledge base in basic course elements Integrate knowledge and concepts Apply knowledge base in solving problem Stimulus to professional skills Stimulus to other perspectives

31 Problem Emphasis - Later Years Revision of core subjects Increased critical appraisal Current literature and practice Increased links to integrated professional practice More complex

32 7 Principles of Effective Case Design Adapt well to students’ prior knowledge Stimulate students to elaborate Relevant context Integration of knowledge Stimulate self-directed learning Enhance students’ interest in the subject matter Match the faculty objectives

33 Four Common Pitfalls Too many objectives Distant links to objectives Inadequate consultation Too difficult for student level

34 How to assess the quality of problem?

35 Evaluating the Problem Objective checklist Student feedback Tutor feedback Review and refinement is usually necessary

36 Problem Effectiveness in PBL Objectives not identified Faculty objectives related not to so much to problems Objectives broadly defined and requiring an extensive search Psychological and social issues

37 Problem Effectiveness in PBL Unexpected issues Related to prior knowledge deficiencies Patient management and medical intervention Associated by faculty with additional curricular activities Students’ personal interest

38 Conclusion

39 Determine learning outcomes Content Selection Problem Selection Writing Problem Review Problem Implementation Problem Evaluation Stages in Problem Writing

40 “There is an art to develop effective problems for PBL which requires team effort, dedicated time and rigour”


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