Presentation on theme: "1/8 – Ancient Greece Wrap-Up / Rome Introduction AIMS: 1) What were the advantages of an Athenian or Spartan lifestyle? 2) how was Rome founded? Opener:"— Presentation transcript:
1/8 – Ancient Greece Wrap-Up / Rome Introduction AIMS: 1) What were the advantages of an Athenian or Spartan lifestyle? 2) how was Rome founded? Opener: Plan for your Athens / Sparta Debate
The Geography of Rome
Italy in 750 BCE First Romans were members of the Latins (group of people who invaded Italy before 1000 BCE) Romans were heavily influenced by the Etruscans and the Greeks
Influence of the Etruscans Writing (initially from the Greeks) The Arch Sporting events
Greek Influences Architecture Art – Pottery – Paintings, sculpture – Literature – Virgil wrote about Trojan War – “Greco-Roman” Art Mythology – Adopted Greek gods and gave them Roman names – Romans were more interested in performing proper rituals than telling stories about the gods like the Greeks did.
The Mythical Founding of Rome: Romulus & Remus
Rome’s Early Road System
Roman Roads: The Appian Way
The Roman Colosseum
The Colosseum Interior
Development of the Republic As plebeians gained power, the Republic became more democratic. By 367 BCE, one of the consuls had to be a plebeian Consuls had the same powers as the early kings, but with two important limitations: – Elected to serve only one year – Each consul could veto the other’s actions. (The word veto is from the Latin word meaning “I forbid”)
Senate Senate had approximately 300 citizens Controlled treasury and foreign policy Most senators were patricians Held their positions for life Laws proposed by the Senate could be approved or rejected by citizen assemblies.
The Punic Wars BCE Carthage was a serious competitor of Rome By the end of the wars Rome defeated Carthage As Rome expanded (east into the former empire of Alexander the Great) it transitioned from a republic to an empire
Rome Review: Legal Advances Republic (in beginning), with a Senate and citizen assemblies. Code of Law – “Twelve Tables” Ideas of civic virtue & loyalty to the state – Dictators were expected to give up power after a crisis had passed Trial by jury
Rome Review: Economic Development Nearly 60,000 miles of roads linked the Roman Empire Trade made merchants rich Tax revenue made the empire stronger A uniform currency was used Latin became the common language of trade Click on the link to learn more about Roman coins!
Rome Review: Technological Advances Aqueducts Sewage Plumbing Public Baths Public Toilets Stadiums Roads Extensive use of the arch & concrete to build advanced structures Public Roman Latrine
1/11 – Transformation to Empire AIM: How did Rome transform from a Republic to an Empire? Opener: What were some of the pressures facing the Roman Republic after the Punic Wars?
PompeyPompey Civil War & Dictators Julius Caesar
Crossing the Rubicon, 49 BC The Die is Cast!
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar led the Roman army against Gaul (modern day France) in 46 BCE. He was victorious and declared himself dictator for life When Caesar returned to Italy he defeated the republican forces. Their leader, Pompey, fled to Egypt Caesar followed him there and became involved with Cleopatra Caesar initiated building projects to help the poor. Senators Brutus and Cassius led the assassination of Caesar in 44 BCE Caesar’s successor was his great nephew, Octavian (Augustus), who became Rome’s first true emperor Augustus’ reign began an age of peace and prosperity that became known as Pax Romana
Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE
Octavian Augustus: Rome’s First Emperor
The First Roman Dynasty
Pax Romana : 27 BCE – 180 CE
The Roman Empire –14 CE
1/14 – Origins of Christianity AIM: How did Christianity originate? How did early Christians interact with the Roman Empire? Opener: Homework review – describe the relationship between the Romans and the Jews during the first century.
1/15 – Decline and Fall of Rome AIM: Why did Rome weaken and fall? Opener: What problems lead to the end of Pax Romana?
Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 CE
Constantinople: “The 2 nd Rome” (Founded in 330)
Barbarians at the gates What does “barbarian” mean in a historical context? What are the connotations of words like “goth” and “vandal”?
Barbarians Weaken Roman Empire By the early 400s, Barbarian attacks led Rome to lose control of Britain, Gaul, Spain, and North Africa.
Barbarian Invasions: 4c-5c
Causes of the Fall of Rome: Geography – Roman Empire shaped like a donut around the Mediterranean. Difficult to defend. Economic decline – Reliance on imports of goods – wasteful & destructive civil wars – Increased tax burden on poor Corrupt government – Fighting between rulers
Causes of the Fall of Rome: Decline in work force – High death rate among Romans – Increased reliance on slaves Lack of technology – Historical reliance on slavery meant that there was little labor-saving devices to help with productivity Military Defeat – Reliance on paid mercenaries – Barbarian invasions could not be defeated
Events During the Decline of Rome In the 50 year period from , twenty- five different emperors ruled Rome. All but one were killed. Under emperor Diocletian, the empire is split into Eastern and Western halves. Emperor Constantine promoted Christianity as a means of uniting the empire. (Before, Christians were persecuted in Rome). Constantine also moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople.
The Fall of Rome Military causesEconomic causesPolitical causesSocial causes -Visigoths and other Germanic peoples (“barbarians”) invade the empire. -Roman army loses training and discipline. -Romans forced to hire foreign soldiers to defend borders. -Heavy taxes necessary to support the government, but burden fell on the poor -Farmers leave land, Romans use too much slave labor, so middle class disappears. -Many leaders assassinated (instability) -Many corrupt officials. -Divided empire becomes weak. -Population declines because of disease and war -People become selfish and lazy (decline of patriotism)
The Fall Western Rome officially “fell” in 476 when Germanic chief Odoacer forced the last Roman emperor out of power. The Western Empire/Western Europe would then enter 1,000 years of turmoil known as the “middle”, “medieval”. or “dark” ages. The Eastern Empire would continue for another 1,000 years under the name Byzantine Empire. Their most famous Byzantine ruler was emperor Justinian who recorded Roman laws as Justinian’s Code. This code forms the basis of many of our modern legal traditions.