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Pre-training Preparations

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1 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations Dorothee Spuhler, Leonellha Barreto-Dillon, Martin Wafler, Stefanie Kaiser (seecon international gmbh) Sreevidya Satish (Ecosan Service Foundation) Bipin Dangol (Environmental and Public Health Organization) 1

2 Copyright & Disclaimer
01/16/13 Copyright & Disclaimer Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open- source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document   Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.

3 Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics
01/16/13 Contents Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics Wrap-Up: Training Concept and Design Marketing of a Training Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips 3

4 Train the Trainers on www.sswm.info
01/16/13 Train the Trainers on Pre-training Preparations 4

5 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis What is it about? Learning needs analysis is a starting point of the training cycle and it influences all stages of the training cycle. A review of expectations at the start of the course does not substitute for a profound learning needs analysis in advance of the course, because by this stage it will be difficult for the trainers to do major changes in the programme. Source: [Accessed: ] 5

6 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis What is it about? A learning needs analysis has to be done in advance of the course. A review of expectations at the start of the course does not substitute it. A review of expectations at the start of the course does not substitute for a profound learning needs analysis in advance of the course, because by this stage it will be difficult for the trainers to do major changes in the programme. Source: [Accessed: ] 6

7 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis What are “Learning Needs”? Improve the performance (capacity to do thing) Needs of the “individuals” as well as the “organisations” to Source: [Accessed: ] Gap in capacity (knowledge, skills and attitude) of the individuals in performing a task at desired level. “Learning Needs” = 7

8 Brainstorming Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis What questions to ask to understand the Learning Needs? Of individuals? Of organisations? Brainstorming Time: up to 5 minutes 8

9 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis What questions to ask to understand the Learning Needs? Individuals: Who are the people? What are their roles and responsibilities of the people? Why do they need training? What capacity do they already have and what is lacking? What are their expectations? Where do they have to be trained? Source: 10/here-we-go-again.html [Accessed: ] 9

10 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis What questions to ask to understand the Learning Needs? Organisations: What is the organisation doing and which activities are related to the identified training needs? How does the organisation manage and monitor capacity and knowledge? How is staff motivated to get trainings? How are trainings followed-up? Source: 10/here-we-go-again.html [Accessed: ] 10

11 Brainstorming Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis How can you collect the relevant information? Brainstorming Time: up to 5 minutes 11

12 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis How can you collect the relevant information? Key Methods and Tools: Interviews/ meeting with staff responsible for the training course Questionnaire survey of participants Self assessment from learners (open questions) Observation Role/job/ task analysis Recording and rechecking the earlier course evaluation 12

13 Next Step? Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 1) Learning Needs Analysis Training Existing Skills Learning Needs Desired Performance Outcomes: WHY? - motivation, expectations WHO? - role and responsibility of people WHAT? - current knowledge, skills and attitudes; clarifying the desired change WHERE? - where is it most accessible by all target groups Next Step? Source:http://www.ucanlearning.co.uk/ userimages/Help_Jigsaw.jpg [Accessed: ] 13 13

14 Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisations Logistics
01/16/13 Contents Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisations Logistics Wrap-Up: Training Concept and Design Marketing of a Training Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips 14

15 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Conceptualising and Designing the Training Course Training Existing Skills Learning Needs Desired Performance Concept Design Agenda and Course Plan 15

16 CONCEPT OUTCOME DESIGN Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Conceptualising and Designing the Training Course Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents Agenda Course Plan CONCEPT OUTCOME Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN 16

17 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents 2) Planning and Conceptualisation CONCEPT I. Goal / Aim State what you want to achieve with this training. Example: ”Participants with the needed theory, skills, tools and practice to be able to develop and implement effective SSWM training programmes.” Note: If you have an aim, objectives are the sub points !! Source: [Accessed: ] 17

18 SMART Pre-training Preparations CONCEPT Specific Measurable Achievable
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents 2) Planning and Conceptualisation CONCEPT II. Objectives Training objectives should state what participants will be able to do by the end of the training session of course. They should be SMART: Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time Bound SMART Source: content/uploads/2010/07/iStock_ XSmall 1.jpg[Accessed: 18

19 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents 2) Planning and Conceptualisation CONCEPT II. Objectives Examples: By the end of today, participants: Be able to use the SSMW Toolbox as a training tool Know how to use appropriate interactive training methods and tools. Be able to facilitate training sessions. Be able to assess training needs and set learning objectives. Know how to conceptualize and design a SSWM training course. Know how to evaluate training courses and reflect feedback. 19

20 All those marked by MUST KNOW are
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents 2) Planning and Conceptualisation CONCEPT III. Key Learning Points Key learning points are what you want the people to remember from the training session and which you therefore need to cover and reinforce. Start with writing down everything which you want to convey through training. Then classify the points by which of these participants MUST KNOW SHOULD KNOW COULD KNOW Examples: All those marked by MUST KNOW are Key Learning Points Close the nutrient loop Project Cycle Close the water loop Community involvement 20

21 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents 2) Planning and Conceptualisation CONCEPT Training Content WHAT are you training? The training content has to be able to bridge the gap between what is and what ought to be. WHO are you training HOW? The training content has to reflect the knowledge, attitudes, values and skills needed for a person to function effectively and efficiently in his/her job or in areas. Existing Skills Learning Needs Training Desired Performance 21

22 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Course Plan Example: Session 1: Welcome and Inauguration 10 min. Welcome Address 10 min. Presentation of Agenda 60 min. Introduction of Participants Session 2: Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM) Explain how different sectors have to work together and how to close the water and nutrient cycle Session 3: Group Work Help participants to understand how SSWM would be applied to their system. Session 4: Etc. IV. Training Content WHAT Prepare an Outline Source: content/uploads/2010/01/Write-Content-That-Sticks.png: [Accesed:11/10/10] 22

23 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content The outline and course plan help you to: To organise your ideas To present your material in a logical form To show the relationships among ideas To constructs an ordered overview of your presentations Once you are sure about the course plan, finalise the agenda! Course Plan Final Agenda 23

24 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Define the Training Strategy Identify the best type of training for the context. Examples: Face to face Basic Course Expert Course Specialised training Online Hands on Training, Field Level Training 24

25 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Lectures Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Colour Cards IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Choose activities Manifold Flexible Easily adaptable Easy explainable Easy understandable Brain- storming Role play Discussions Group Works Videos Energizers & Ice breakers 25

26 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Invite Resource Persons Why? Avoids that you are talking all the time More knowledge as you in the field of his expertise Brings in another perspective Gives you time to spend with participants You will learn from his experience as well New contacts for everyone 26

27 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Invite Resource Persons Who do you invite? Expertise Degree of experience Availability Interpersonal skills Willingness 27

28 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Selection of Participants Why? Achievement of a course depends on the motivation & appropriateness of participants. Criteria for participants depend on type and aims of the training. 28

29 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Selection of Participants How do you select participants? Choose the right number of people Find the relevant people (need for learning) Ensure the right combination of people (cross-sectoral, strenghten collaboration between organisations) Aim for the right level of participation (committed) Source: [Accessed: ] 29

30 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Selection of Participants Challenges: Last minute confirmation Fail to show up Missing of sessions Possible solution: demand course fee (at least partially) in advance. 30

31 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 2) Planning and Conceptualisation Training strategy Activities Resource persons Participants DESIGN IV. Training Content WHO and HOW Selection of Participants Importance of course fee: Influences participants composition. Discounts for students, NGOs or poorer participants ensure a more heterogeneous group. Channels of marketing also influence participants composition. Generally no (completely) free offering. --> Attracts people that have “nothing else to do” and not necessarily those on whom a training might have the biggest impact. 31

32 Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics
01/16/13 Contents Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics Wrap-Up: Training Concept and Design Marketing of a Training Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips 32

33 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Good logistical planning is one of the most crucial aspects of training delivery. If your participants are not comfortable physically and at ease psychologically, they will not benefit fully from the training content. Checklist: Venue and Classrooms setting Equipment (pin boards, beamer, etc.) Inviting trainers and confirmation of their availability Preparing a checklist of pre and post training activities Catering requirements and orders  Source: [Accessed: } 33

34 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Venue Arrangement One of the most important factors in successful training is the venue or room in which the training is conducted. Checklist: How many rooms? Small room for groups or big aula? For how much people? Accessibility? Price? Atmosphere? Seating arrangements? 34

35 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: It defines how the participants interact with each other and with you! It encompasses comfort, access and safety for the attendees It extends a presenter's influence in the room, broadcast intention and eliminate distractions Types: Theatre Style Classroom Style Conference U-shaped 35

36 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: Theatre Style Used for very large audiences where the speaker is the main focus Does not encourage note- taking since there are no tables provided for this seating arrangement Participants sit side by side in long rows Can be difficult for access and safety Source: [Accessed: } 36

37 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: Classroom Style – Straigth Used for middle-sized groups Same as theatre style but with tables Encourages note-taking Can be difficult in access Source: [Accessed: } 37

38 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: Classroom Style – Round Smaller groups Better view Better acoustic Source: [Accessed: } 38

39 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: Cluster Type Great for small group discussions. Allows the instructor to easily walk around to the groups and help them with the exercises. Easy access Comfortable Notes can be taken A lot of space is required Source: [Accessed: } 39

40 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: Conference Style Great for small group discussions. Participants can hear and see easily. Unity is created by sharing the table and encourages conversation Extremely long tables can give a feeling of isolation and discourage participation. Source: [Accessed: } 40

41 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Logistics Seating Arrangement: U-shaped Easy to see and hear everyone in the group. Notes can be taken Openness gives trainees a sense of freedom and encourages participation. Best set up to view audio visual presentations. Works well with role-playing and other physical activities. Requires more space than other configuration Only for smaller groups Source: [Accessed: } 41

42 + + Pre-training Preparations 3) Checklist
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 3) Checklist Prepare checklist for all the material needed for all the activities to be carried out in the process of training and keep re-checking the list. Checklist Course Plan: Session 1: Welcome and Inauguration 10 min. Welcome Address, Professor Etc. + + 42

43 Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics
01/16/13 Contents Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics Wrap-Up: Training Concept and Design Marketing of a Training Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips 43

44 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up: Training Conceptualisation and Design I. Aim / Goal State what you want to achieve with this training. If you have an aim, objectives are the sub points II. Objectives Training objectives should state what participants will be able to do by the end of the training session of course. They should be SMART: Specific; Measurable; Achievable; Relevant; Time Bound III. Key Learning Points Key learning points are what you want the people to remember from the training session and which you therefore need to cover and reinforce. Start with writing down everything which you want to convey through training. Then classify the points by which of these participants MUST KNOW SHOULD KNOW COULD KNOW 44

45 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up: Training Conceptualisation and Design – EXAMPLE Aim Participants with the needed theory, skills, tools and practice to be able to develop and implement effective SSWM training program Objectives By the end of today, participants qill: Know how to use appropriate interactive training methods and tools. Be able to facilitate training sessions. Be able to assess training needs and set learning objectives. Know how to conceptualize and design a SSWM training course. Know how to evaluate training courses and reflect feedback Learning targets Close the water loop Close the nutrient loop Project Cycle Community involvement Outline of Content Type of Training Face to face: Basic Course; Expert Course; Specialised training Online Hands on Training Field Level Training 45

46 Group Work Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up Make one Flip Chart with an example Training Concept Group Work Time: up to 10 minutes 46

47 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up: Group Work 47

48 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up: Example 48

49 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 4) Wrap-Up: Example 49

50 Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics
01/16/13 Contents Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics Wrap-Up: Training Concept and Design Marketing of a Training Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips 50

51 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 5) Marketing of a Training Planning a training is usually only half the battle; the other half is getting people to take advantage of it. Marketing Source: [Accessed: 09.01/2013] Training Existing Skills Learning Needs Desired Performance 51

52 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 5) Marketing of a Training The 4 P’s Framework: Marketing strategies are developed around: Product - What does the costumer want from the product/ service? Price - What is the value of the product to the customer? Place - Where do customers look for your product? Promotion - How can you reach your customer‘s interest? Note: all P’s have to be addressed in an appropriate way to get a desired result of your training activity. 52

53 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 5) Marketing of a Training Example: A training course An affordable price A conveniently located training centre Various information sharing techniques Source: [Accessed: ] 53

54 Brainstorming Pre-training Preparations 5) Marketing of a Training
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 5) Marketing of a Training What are your ideas for training promotion? Source: [Accessed: ] Brainstorming Time: up to 5 minutes 54

55 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 5) Marketing of a Training Ideas for training promotions: Communicate “What is in it for me?” Don’t pass up free exposure, e.g. bulletin boards, intranets, newsletters, company events, vendor fairs, etc. Seminars and webinars Publish an e-newsletter and send regular s Word of mouth marketing 55

56 Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics
01/16/13 Contents Learning Needs Analysis Planning and Conceptualisation Logistics Wrap-Up: Training Concept and Design Marketing of a Training Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips 56

57 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips What is it about? Each session is like a mini- workshop in itself. Careful preparation helps to build confidence of the facilitator and ensures best possible learning experience. Source: [Accessed: ] 57

58 CONCEPT OUTCOME DESIGN Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Each session is like a mini-workshop in itself: Goal / Aim Specific objectives Key learning points Contents Sessions Fieldtrips Handouts CONCEPT OUTCOME Training strategy Activities Resource persons DESIGN 58

59 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Checklist:  Subject/ aim 2-3 key points Teaching methodology Different parts of a session Time allocation (enough time for discussion) Be appropriately informed about the topic Prepare and organise materials (flip chart, handout, etc.) Seating arrangement 59

60 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Different parts of a session: Introduction Energisers or icebreakers Activities (lecture, group work, individual work, practice, discussion) Conclusion/ Closure Assignment/ Follow-up 60

61 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Example of a session plan: Goal Objectives Place/ Date/ Time Participants Trainer Preparations Assignment/ Follow-up Session Time Material Introduction Energiser/ Icebreaker Activities Conclusion 61

62 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Why doing Fieldtrips? “Seeing is believing” Learning out of the traditional learning environment Good to initiate participants mingling and group problem-solving exercises Seeing is believing. Source: [Accessed: ] 62

63 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Preparation of Fieldtrips: Selection of field visit site: Demonstration of theoretical teaching Site with problems Design of fieldtrip: Clear objectives Well-briefed facilitators Transfer of the gained knowledge back to the job Evaluation Logistical preparation: Number of participants Date and time Access Catering/ overnight stay Equipment Language translation 63

64 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips Preparation of Fieldtrips: Participants with pre-trip instruction learn and retain more from a fieldtrip than those who receive no preparation. Instructional document: General information Schedule and contact numbers Specific information (review of existing information - THIS IS A MUST!) Key questions Source: [Accessed: ] 64

65 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips During the Field Visit: Have a field coordinator, which is an expert on the subject. Ask participants to collect all the information they read, hear, observe, see and feel. Encourage the participants to be open- minded and flexible. Encourage them to build relationships with the group members and to respond to their needs and interests as much as possible. Source: [Accessed: ] 65

66 Pre-training Preparations
01/16/13 Pre-training Preparations 6) Preparing Individual Sessions and Fieldtrips After the Field Visit: Allow time to relax, exchange experiences and to answer questions. Provide time to prepare presentations/ feedback on what they have learned. Reflect on the learning. Encourage to ask questions so that everyone can learn from the experience. Source: [Accessed: ] 66

67 01/16/13 References KRCHNAK, K. M. (2003): Module 6 − Planning Training of Trainers (TOT) Workshops. In: GWA (EDS): Gender Mainstreaming: Practical Skills and Critical Analysis ODG. Dieren: Gender and Water Alliance GARY, K. (2007): Basic Training for Trainers. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. ELLINGTON, H.; PERCIVAL, F.; RACE, P. (1993): Handbook of Educational Technology, London: Kogan Page. FAO (1998): Food quality and safety systems. A training manual on food hygiene and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic Development Series 4. OHNSON, G.L (2006): Top Ten Strategies to Market Training to Your Workforce. Training growth Innovations. TrainingIndustry.com. URL: Articles/Top%20Ten%20Strategies%20-%20Sept%202006(1).pdf [Accessed: ] LOOMIS, M. (2007): Making your trainings more effective. Durham: Family Health International. URL: [Accessed: ] PATRICK, F. (2009): Improve Your Coaching & Training Skills. New Delhi: Kogan Page India Pvt Ltd. SCOTT, B. (2005): Social Marketing: A Consumer-based Approach to Promoting Safe Hygiene Behaviours. Leicestershire: WELL. URL: [Accessed: ]. SUSAN, I. (1998): Using Adult Learning Principles in Adult Basic and Literacy Education. Columbus: Centre on Education and Training for Employment. URL: [Accessed: ]. 67

68 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture”
01/16/13 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture” SSWM is an initiative supported by: Created by: 68


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