Heavy Casualties 22 mill. dead (1/2 civilians)22 mill. dead (1/2 civilians) 20 mill. wounded20 mill. wounded 10 mill. refugees10 mill. refugees US lost 48,000 men in battle, 62,000 men to diseaseUS lost 48,000 men in battle, 62,000 men to disease $338 billion in damages$338 billion in damages
Russia France United KingdomUnited Kingdom Italy Serbia & MontenegroSerbia & Montenegro Romania United StatesUnited States WWI Casualties
Pres. Wilson’s Fourteen Points Presented to Congress before the War is over 1 st Five Points1 st Five Points Points Six through Thirteen: boundary changes –Dealt with boundary changes (empires destroyed, new countries created) Fourteenth Point: –Wanted creation of an intern’tl organization –League of Nations –League of Nations: a place to discuss and settle problems w/out war
Wilson’s 14 Points Plan Rejected Big Four revise Wilson’s ideasBig Four revise Wilson’s ideas Most of Wilson’s plan rejected, but they do create a League of NationsMost of Wilson’s plan rejected, but they do create a League of NationsLeague of NationsLeague of Nations Clemenceau- French Lloyd George- British Orlando- Italy
Treaty of Versailles, June 1919 Established new nationsEstablished new nations Germany Punished:Germany Punished: –No Army –Must pay reparations –War-Guilt Clause –Stripped of Colonial possessions American sentiment: American sentiment: German punishment too harsh German punishment too harsh Newer immigrants upset with outcome for their “homeland” Newer immigrants upset with outcome for their “homeland”
WWI Impact on US U.S. military & gov’t power increasesU.S. military & gov’t power increases Accelerated social change for African Americans and womenAccelerated social change for African Americans and women Propaganda = fear of new gov’tsPropaganda = fear of new gov’ts
League of Nations? Opponents feel the League of Nations would threaten U.S. policy of isolationismOpponents feel the League of Nations would threaten U.S. policy of isolationism Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge wants the “constitutional right of Congress to declare war” included in the treaty (sovereignty)Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge wants the “constitutional right of Congress to declare war” included in the treaty (sovereignty) Congress refuses to ratify the documentCongress refuses to ratify the document –US doesn’t join the LON 1921: U.S. signs a separate treaty with Germany1921: U.S. signs a separate treaty with Germany
1 st Five Points Points 1. No secret treaties1. No secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas2. Freedom of the seas 3. Tariffs should be lowered or abolished = free trade3. Tariffs should be lowered or abolished = free trade 4. Limit weapons to just what is necessary for defense4. Limit weapons to just what is necessary for defense 5. Take into account interests of colonies, as well as imperial powers.5. Take into account interests of colonies, as well as imperial powers.
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