Presentation on theme: "Zero Waste Think Tank Mixed Plastics A joint presentation by WRAP, SWAG & Remade."— Presentation transcript:
Zero Waste Think Tank Mixed Plastics A joint presentation by WRAP, SWAG & Remade
Topics What is currently happening with plastics – MSW and Commercial? What are consumer views on plastics recycling How do we recover more plastic? Are there markets for polymers? Is there any role for EFW?
How much are we currently collecting from the MSW stream? In 2006 we recycled circa 12,500 tonnes (0.4% MSW%) There is a further 237,546 tonnes available (Total 7% MSW )
What people see in their bins – mainly packaging….!
C&I - Arisings? SEPA Business Waste Study Plastics contribute 7% arisings (8.41 Mt) = 555,288T Licensed Site Returns?? 26,246 tonnes of recovered plastics sent to waste facilities But 14,734 tonnes was production wastes (emulsions and industry waste) Figure closer to 11,512 tonnes of genuine plastic post consumer waste delivered to facilities BUT LAWAS – reported 8,000T MSW Therefore 11,512-8,000 = 3,500 of C&I plastics recovered…!? (Includes ELV & WEEE) Plastic Mix? Composition Analysis Required to identify mix of commercial plastics C&I Conclusions Most activity found in plastic packaging, mechanical treatment of waste and MSW type Packaging, ELV, WEEE and MSW both have assisted targets and drivers for recovery. Not a broad range of companies accepting plastics outwith MSW service providers.
Who processes municipal plastic collections?
Final Markets Over 75% of plastics exported - 74% to China JFC Plastics (bottles to pipes) 4 or 5 new plants in planning Challenge to divert exported bottles to local
Recycling Facilities Around 45% of households have a kerbside collection for plastic bottles. 30/32 Local Authorities recycle plastic bottles at either Recycling Centres and Recycling Points or at the kerbside; The total number of Recycling Centres and Points accepting plastic bottles are: - All types = 1003 - HDPE = 474 - PET = 452 The total number of Local Authorities who accept plastics bottles at the kerbside are: - All types = 10 - HDPE = 16 - PET =16 Scottish Borders now accept plastic packaging/film/wrapping/trays in their kerbside scheme; Inverclyde and Western Isles recycle plastic food containers. The average plastics collection per household is 0.16kg/hh/wk
Incentives to Recycle 2006 ‘Public Attitudes to Reduce, Reuse, Recycle in Scotland’ – 5002 respondents were asked their opinions and behaviours towards waste; In 2006 it was found that 32% of the total population recycled plastics compared to only 5% in 2002; 17 % of respondents said they wished to recycle more materials including other types of plastics; A further 5% specifically mentioned the ability to recycle plastics would encourage them to recycle more. Typical questions are on the availability of facilities for recycling plastics other than plastic bottles. This includes: Bubble Wrap; Plastic Food containers i.e yoghurt and margarine tubs; Plastic Food wrapping/packaging; Polystyrene.
Mixed plastics – the key questions? “What is the best way to manage mixed plastic packaging waste in the UK?” Mechanically recycle it? Burn it? Bury it? Turn it in to diesel? Use it in cement/steel manufacture? Best = economically and environmentally
Real UK mixed plastics samples (tonne scale) 14 technologies – commercial scale Many widely used across Europe Several novel technologies Covering a wide range of processing including: – Flexible and rigid separation – Near Infra Red (NIR) sorting of rigids – Float/sink flake sorting – Cleaning WRAP Trials
Mixed plastics process schematic Rigid/film split Rigid whole item sepn by Polymer (and colour?) Flake colour sort? Size reduce Wash and density separate Extrude Bale film
Trial Results - Flexible / Rigid Separation StadlerKME Rigids purity99.5%97% Film purity86.4%78.5% Throughput tph62.5 - 3 Capital Cost£216,899£54,971 Maintenance Cost per year (as % of capital) 10%2%
Trial Results - Rigid Separation By Polymer PellencQinetiQSimsTitech Average / represent ative Purity PP PE PET PS PVC PLA 98% 92% 95% 88% 99% 100% 58% 94% 88% 86% 94% 93% 94% 98% 93% 98% 96% 94% 80% 85% 95% 96% 94% 87% 93% 97% Throughput tph352.8 3 Capital Cost£110,000£392,000£138,900 £140,000 Maintenance Cost per year (as % of capital) 5%3%
Trial Results - Flake Washing/Separation B&BFlottwegHerbold Swiss Polymera TLT Purity PO 100%99%98%100%95% Through put tph 1.251.321 Capital Cost £1,470,000£721,391£722,476£2,120,000£667,505 Mainten ance Cost per year (as % of capital) 5%
WRAP LCA Net global warming potential (GWP) (after avoided impacts have been considered) (purple = recycling scenarios, yellow = alternative management options)
SEPA LCA (WRATE) Analysis favours option 3. 70% recycling, 5% landfill, 25% EFW EfW – Energy from waste, assumed to be combined heat and power (CHP) with standard incineration technology – includes plastics which are not easily recovered
DEFRA – Waste Strategy for England 2007 Plastics. Burning plastics has a general net, adverse greenhouse gas impact due to the release of fossil carbon. Recycling shows significant potential for carbon and energy savings through displacing virgin materials, although the scale of this varies widely with the processing route.
Sensitivity of substitution options for recycled plastic on GWP (comparison of Scenarios C and G for varying degrees of substitution). Bands placed around each line to emphasise uncertainties in the data although these have not been quantified. SRF (C) becomes favoured over mechanical recycling (G) when the degree of virgin plastic substitution drops below about 70%. The cross-over point for Scenarios C and G as the degree of virgin plastic displaced by recycled plastic is reduced. WRAP LCA
Where should we target? MSWHHWCA SiteBulky Waste Trade Waste Street Sweeping LitterBeach Cleaning Refuse sacks and carrier bags 1.2%1.9%0.1%0.0%1.3%0.0%3.3%2.0% Packaging film 1.3%1.9%0.1%0.0%2.7%1.0%4.0%2.0% Other Plastic Film 0.2% 0.0%0.4% 0.5%0.0% Dense plastic bottles 1.6%2.1%0.1%0.0%1.5%0.8%6.6%3.1% Other packaging 1.5%2.1%0.3%0.0%1.7%2.4%3.4%3.1% Other dense plastic 1.3%0.6%2.0%1.3%2.3%0.0%2.5%1.5%