Presentation on theme: "Middle East wrap-up Muslim Expansion into Spain and Strait of Gibraltar."— Presentation transcript:
Middle East wrap-up Muslim Expansion into Spain and Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
Vulnerability to Desertification
Sahara Desert satellite image
Lake Chad and Desertification Satellite image Green is Lake Chad and wetlands Sand storms and creeping sand dunes Increased demand for water by people and animals
Saharan settlements Along rivers At oases
Israel and Palestinian terr.
Israel outline map Label –Israel –Gaza Strip –West Bank –Golan Heights –Mediterranean Sea –Egypt –Jordan –Lebanon
Mesopotamia irrigation Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided alluvial soil for crops to thrive. Irrigation was needed to produce crops for growing civilization and regular food production Map of fields and irrigation canals near Nippur, Mesopotamia from cuneifrom tablet, ca 1300 BCE. Source: Singer et al (1954). See Fig. 9-11b for translation.
Saudi Arabian oil 1932 oil is discovered in Bahrain, U.S. begins negotiations with Saudi Arabia to drill for more. In 1933, Americans paid $275,000 to Saudi Arabia's King Ibn Saud for an oil concession first commercial oil field is discovered in Saudi Arabia – U.S. renegotiates with Saudi Arabia - 50/50 split of oil profits between the companies doing the work and the countries where the oil was – Saudi Arabia buys 25% into Aramco 1988 – Saudi Arabia establishes total control over Aramco