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1 Programming in C++ Lecture Notes 9 Functions (Returning Values) Andreas Savva

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2 Functions in Mathematics f(x) = x 2 Parameters f(2) = f(-2) = f(4) = f(x,y) = x 2 +y 4 4 16 f(2,3) = f(-2,-3) = 7 1 f = 3

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3 Functions Function None or many inputparameters Exactly one return value

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4 Functions that we know abs(-6)= 6 sqrt(16)= 4 sin(3.14159/2)= 1 int(45.876)= 45 absx|x| F(x) = |x|

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5 Function Structure ( ) {..... return ; } bool IsBigger (int a, int b) { return a > b; }

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6 Example int MySqr (int x) { return x * x; }Name Formal parameter Data type of return value Return value Functions are executed when we call them: cout << MySqr(6); y = 1 + MySqr(3-1); n = 3 * MySqr(abs(sqrt(9)-5));

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7 Function - Example #include #include using namespace std; int cube(int x) { return x * x * x; return x * x * x;} void main() { int n, x; int n, x; cout << ”Give a number: ”; cout << ”Give a number: ”; cin >> n; cin >> n; x = cube(n); x = cube(n); cout << ”The cube of ” << n cout << ”The cube of ” << n << ” is ” << x; << ” is ” << x;} Start Cube(n) Read n x = Cube(n) Display x Stopmain() Entrance return x * x * x Exit Function Cube(x)

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8 #include using namespace std; char First (int a, int b; float c) {... return ; } void main() { int a = 1, b = 3, c = 7;... char ch = First (5, c, a); } Actual parameters Formal parameters Parameters (Arguments) Formal Formal Actual Actual

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9 Function Example #include using namespace std; int max(int a, int b); // Function prototype int num; // Global variable void main() { cout << max(4,7); num = max(2*4-1, Sqrt(81)); cout << num; cout << max(max(4,5),8); cout << max(max(4,2),max(3,max(6,1))); } int max (int a, int b) { if (a > b) return a; else return b; } Result Result 7 9 8 6

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10 Return return exits the function immediately and returns a value. return exits the function immediately and returns a value. int addone (int a) { return 1; cout << a + 1; a++; return a; cout << a; } Statements below this line will never be executed. Always return 1 int max(int a, int b) { if (a > b) return a; else return b; } int max(int a, int b) { if (a > b) return a; return b; } same

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11 Be Careful int max(int a, int b) { int large; if (a > b) large = a; else large = b; return large; } int max(int a, int b) { int large; if (a > b) large = a; large = b; return large; } NOTthesame

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12 Procedure Vs Function #include using namespace std; int num; Display void Display( ) { cout << ”I like college”; } MySqr int MySqr (int x) { return x * x; } void main( ) Display( ) Display( ); MySqr cout << MySqr(3); MySqr num = 1 + 6 * MySqr(4); } Does not return a value Returns

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13 Constant Reference Parameters Value formal parameters copy in a new memory location the value of the actual parameter. Value formal parameters copy in a new memory location the value of the actual parameter. When we have large structures it is better to use a reference formal parameter since copying could be time-consuming and we also waist additional memory. When we have large structures it is better to use a reference formal parameter since copying could be time-consuming and we also waist additional memory. We can declare a reference formal parameter as a constant which will not allow as to change its value (for safety). We can declare a reference formal parameter as a constant which will not allow as to change its value (for safety). void invalid(const int &x) { x = 5; // Syntax ERROR }

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14 Formal Parameters void test(int a, int &b, int *c) { a = 12; b = 23; *c = 34; } void main() { int x = 2, y = 5, z = 7; test(x, y, &z); cout << x << endl << y << endl << z; } 22334

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15 main() is also a Function #include // standard system definitions library #include using namespace std; int main() { int x,y; cout << ”Please enter two numbers: ”; cin >> x >> y; int sum = x + y; cout << ”Their sum is ” << sum << endl; return EXIT_SUCCESS; }

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16 main() can also take Parameters #include using namespace std; void main(int argc, char **argv) { if (argc > 1) if (strcmp(argv[1],”nicosia”)) cout << ”Not a valid password”; else cout << ”Logged in as administrator”; else cout << ”Regular user”; }

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17 Exercise 1 Write a program that will ask the price of a product and display the discount. The discount should be returned by a function, called “Discount”, that will take the price as a formal parameter and return the discount which is 15%. Write a program that will ask the price of a product and display the discount. The discount should be returned by a function, called “Discount”, that will take the price as a formal parameter and return the discount which is 15%.

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18 Exercise 2 Write a program to ask the base and height of a right-angle triangle and display its area. The area should be calculated and returned by a function, called “Area”, that will take the base and height as formal parameters. Write a program to ask the base and height of a right-angle triangle and display its area. The area should be calculated and returned by a function, called “Area”, that will take the base and height as formal parameters. Area = (Base x Height) / 2

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19 Exercise 3 Write a function “Subtract” that will take two real parameters and return their difference. Also write the program that will read the numbers, call the function and display the result. Write a function “Subtract” that will take two real parameters and return their difference. Also write the program that will read the numbers, call the function and display the result.

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20 Exercise 4 Write a function “Calculator” that will take two numbers a and b and a character, and if the character is: Write a function “Calculator” that will take two numbers a and b and a character, and if the character is: ’+’ to return a + b ’–’ to return a – b ’*’ to return a * b ’/’ to return a / b

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21 Exercise 5 Write a function “Sum” that will take two integer numbers n and m and return the sum of all the numbers from n to m. Write a function “Sum” that will take two integer numbers n and m and return the sum of all the numbers from n to m.i.e. Sum(1,4) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10 Sum(1,4) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10 Sum(4,9) = 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 39 Sum(4,9) = 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 39 Sum(7,7) = 7 Sum(7,7) = 7 Sum(7,2) = 0 Sum(7,2) = 0

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22 Exercise 6 Write a function “Month” that will take the month-number and return the month name. Write a function “Month” that will take the month-number and return the month name. i.e. Month(1) = “January” Month(1) = “January” Month(4) = “April” Month(4) = “April” Month(11) = “November” Month(11) = “November”

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23 Exercise 7 Write a function “Teenager” that will take the age of a person and return true if is a teenager and false if not. A teenager is someone who is between 12 and 18 years old. Write a function “Teenager” that will take the age of a person and return true if is a teenager and false if not. A teenager is someone who is between 12 and 18 years old.

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24 Exercise 8 Write a function “PI” that will return the value of π which is 3.14159. Write a function “PI” that will return the value of π which is 3.14159.

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25 Exercise 9 Write a function “Decimal” that will return the decimal part of a number. Write a function “Decimal” that will return the decimal part of a number.Example: Given the number 13.46 the function will return the value 0.46. Given the number 13.46 the function will return the value 0.46. Hint: 13.46 - 13 = 0.46 Hint: 13.46 - 13 = 0.46 num int(num)

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26 Exercise 10 1. Write a function “Power” to calculate the power of a given number. i.e. Power(2,3) = 2 3 = 8 Power(4,2) = 4 2 = 16 2. Write a function “Equation” to calculate the equation 3x 3 9x 5. x is a value formal parameter. 3. Using the function “Equation” write a program to calculate and display the equation 3 6 3 9 6 5.

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27 What is the output of the following program? What is the output of the following program? Exercise 11 #include using namespace std; int StopAt(int i, int m, int n) { if (2*m-1 <= n) return i – 1; else return n – i; } void display(int n, char c) { int i, j; for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) { for (j = 1; j <= StopAt(i,i,n); j++) cout << ' '; cout << c; if (i*2-1 != n) { for (j = 1; j <= StopAt((2*i)%(n+1),n-i+1,n); j++) cout << ' '; cout << c; } cout << endl; } void main() { display(5,'+'); display(7,'?'); display(6,'0'); }

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