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An Invitation to Health Chapter 6 Eating Patterns and Problems Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 6 Eating Patterns and Problems Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 6 Eating Patterns and Problems Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 The Overweight and Obesity Epidemic 64.5% of adult Americans (2 out of 3 individuals) are overweight or obese. 64.5% of adult Americans (2 out of 3 individuals) are overweight or obese. 15% of children ages are overweight or obese. 15% of children ages are overweight or obese. Obesity’s Cost: Obesity’s Cost: $100 billion/year $100 billion/year 300,000 excess deaths 300,000 excess deaths

3 Body Dissatisfaction in African- American and White Students

4 Weight Assessment Body Mass Index: Body Mass Index: Overweight: BMI > 25; Obesity: BMI >30. Overweight: BMI > 25; Obesity: BMI >30. Waist Circumference: Waist Circumference: Men: > 40 inches; Women: >35 inches Men: > 40 inches; Women: >35 inches These measurements indicate that individuals have excess central or visceral fat. These measurements indicate that individuals have excess central or visceral fat. Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Men: apple shape; Women: pear shaped. Men: apple shape; Women: pear shaped.

5 The Pear versus the Apple Waist-to-Hip Ratio Definition: waist circumference measurement divided by the measurement of the widest circumference around the hips. Men’s Goal: Men<0.95 Women’s Goal: <0.80

6 Visceral Fat vs. Subcutaneous Fat

7 How Many Calories Do I Need? Calories: Calories: The measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food. The measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food. Multiply your current weight by:___x__=__ Multiply your current weight by:___x__=__ 14 if you are sedentary 15 if you exercise 3 x/week; 40 min. 16 if you exercise 5-7x/wk; min. Remember, regardless of whether you consume carbohydrates, protein or fat, if you take in more calories than your body requires, your body will convert the excess to fat.

8 Globesity How Did We Get So Fat? Americans are eating more and exercising less. Americans are eating more and exercising less. Americans are eating more calories than they did several decades ago, and they are expending fewer calories than people did 25 years ago. Americans are eating more calories than they did several decades ago, and they are expending fewer calories than people did 25 years ago. Portion distortion. Portion distortion. Refined carbohydrates. Refined carbohydrates. Media and food marketing. Media and food marketing.

9 The Multiple Causes of Obesity Genetics Lifestyle PhysicalActivity DevelopmentalFactors SocialDeterminants EmotionalInfluences

10 Health Dangers of Excess Weight

11 Getting Ready for Weight Loss Make health a priority. Make health a priority. Follow a healthful eating regimen. Follow a healthful eating regimen. Incorporate regular physical activity into your daily routine. Incorporate regular physical activity into your daily routine. Set realistic, attainable goals. Set realistic, attainable goals. Focus on a healthy lifestyle. Focus on a healthy lifestyle. Focus your strategies so they are action-oriented and specific. Focus your strategies so they are action-oriented and specific. Tailor your strategies to your lifestyle. Tailor your strategies to your lifestyle. Think long term. Think long term.

12 Treatment for Weight Problems Overweight (BMI = 25-29) Overweight (BMI = 25-29) Cut back moderately on food intake and concentrate on developing healthy eating and exercise habits. Mild to Moderate Obesity (BMI = 30-39) Mild to Moderate Obesity (BMI = 30-39) Six-month trial of lifestyle therapy, including a supervised diet and exercise. Goal Goal: 10% reduction in weight to reduce obesity-related risks. Severe Obesity (BMI = 40+) Severe Obesity (BMI = 40+) Gastric bypass or stomach stapling may be indicated.

13 Avoiding Diet Traps DietFoods Diet Pills & Products The Yo-Yo Syndrome Very Low- Calorie Diets

14 Weight-Cycling Effect of Repeated Dieting

15 Is It Physical Hunger or Emotional Hunger? Physical Hunger Builds gradually. Builds gradually. Strikes below the neck. Strikes below the neck. No sense of compulsion. No sense of compulsion. Occurs several hours after a meal. Occurs several hours after a meal. General. General. Goes away when full. Goes away when full. Eating leads to feeling of satisfaction. Eating leads to feeling of satisfaction. Emotional Hunger Develops suddenly. Above the neck. An urgent need to eat. Unrelated to time since last meal. Specific, often for a particular food or brand. Persists despite fullness. Eating leads to guilt and shame.

16 Healthy Weight Management for Life Establish your goals Never say diet Be realistic Recognize that there are no quick fixes Note your progress Adopt the 90 percent rule Try, try again

17 How Hormones Help Regulate Our Appetite

18 The Female Athlete Triad Disordered Eating Patterns Menstrual Dysfunction Bone Mineral Disorders

19 Disordered Eating In College Students The Facts Younger women are more likely than older women to have an eating disorder. Younger women are more likely than older women to have an eating disorder. Eating disorders equally affect women of different races. Eating disorders equally affect women of different races. Eating disorders do not only affect women. Eating disorders do not only affect women. Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns can lead to eating disorders. Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns can lead to eating disorders. Extreme Dieting: Extreme Dieting: Cutting calories, exercising, preoccupation with food and weight. Cutting calories, exercising, preoccupation with food and weight.

20 Is The Freshman 15 Reality?

21 Signs of Compulsive Overeating Using food as an escape from depression, loneliness, and rejection. Using food as an escape from depression, loneliness, and rejection. A history of failed diets and anxiety when dieting. A history of failed diets and anxiety when dieting. Thinking about food throughout the day. Thinking about food throughout the day. Eating quickly and without pleasure. Eating quickly and without pleasure. Continuing to eat even when you’re no longer hungry. Continuing to eat even when you’re no longer hungry. Frequent talking about food, or refusing to talk about food. Frequent talking about food, or refusing to talk about food. Fear of not being able to stop eating once you start. Fear of not being able to stop eating once you start.

22 Signs of Binge Eating Eating much more rapidly than usual. Eating much more rapidly than usual. Eating until they feel uncomfortably full. Eating until they feel uncomfortably full. Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry. Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry. Eating large amounts of food throughout the day with no planned mealtimes. Eating large amounts of food throughout the day with no planned mealtimes. Eating alone because they are embarrassed by how much they eat and by their eating habits. Eating alone because they are embarrassed by how much they eat and by their eating habits.

23 Do You Have An Eating Disorder? Do you make yourself sick because you feel uncomfortably full? Do you make yourself sick because you feel uncomfortably full? Do you worry you have lost control over how much you eat? Do you worry you have lost control over how much you eat? Have you recently lost more then 14 pounds in a three- month period? Have you recently lost more then 14 pounds in a three- month period? Do you believe yourself to be fat when others say you are too thin? Do you believe yourself to be fat when others say you are too thin? Would you say that food dominates your life? Would you say that food dominates your life? If you answered ‘yes’ to two or more of the questions above you may be toying with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

24 Common Factors Associated with Eating Disorders Low self-esteem & negative body image Low self-esteem & negative body image Major life transition or traumatic life event Major life transition or traumatic life event Troubled family and/or personal relationships Troubled family and/or personal relationships Fear of failure & lack of control in life Fear of failure & lack of control in life Specific personality traits and psychological disorders Specific personality traits and psychological disorders Attraction to sports and exercise Attraction to sports and exercise Recommendation to lose weight without guidance Recommendation to lose weight without guidance Initiation of dieting at an early age Initiation of dieting at an early age Cultural ideals and pressures Cultural ideals and pressures

25 Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa A. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. B. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight. C. Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight. D. Amenorrhea

26 Medical Complications of Weight Loss From Anorexia Nervosa

27 Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Bulimia Nervosa A. Recurrent episodes of binge eating. B. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain (laxatives, diuretics, vomiting and excessive exercise). C. Binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors both occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months. D. Self evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.

28 Medical Complications Related to Purging

29 Treatment Options for Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Medical therapy Medical therapy “refeeding” “refeeding” Behavioral therapy Behavioral therapy Cognitive therapy Cognitive therapy Psychodynamic therapy Psychodynamic therapy Family therapy Family therapy Occasionally medications Occasionally medications Bulimia Nervosa Nutritional counseling Psychodynamics Cognitive-behavior therapy Individual and group psychotherapy Medications Fluoxetine (Prozac)


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