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Overweight and Obesity Theresa Staley Jordan Knoepfel.

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1 Overweight and Obesity Theresa Staley Jordan Knoepfel

2 Key Facts Obesity has doubled since 1980 More than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2011 65% of world’s population live in overweight countries 35% of adults aged 20+ were overweight in 2008 (11% were obese) In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults 20+ were overweight (500 million were obese)

3 Upper Map: Overweight Lower Map: Obese

4 Why Is This A Growing Trend? Many low and middle income countries are facing a “double burden” of disease Exposure to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy- dense, micronutrient-poor foods (lower in cost but lower in nutrient quality) Children are more vulnerable to inadequate prenatal, infant and young child nutrition

5 Predictions (2030) 2.16 billion overweight individuals, 1.12 million obese (with adjusting for secular trends) If trends continue, by 2030 up to 57.8% of the world’s adult population (3.3 billion people) will be overweight or obese)

6 WHO (World Health Organization)Response Adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2004 Developed a global strategy on diet, physical activity and health o Governmental Involvement o Public Awareness o Promotion of healthy foods o National Dietary Guidelines o National Physical Activity Guidelines

7 Why This Population? Key issue due to its growing frequency Will continue to grow if modern society doesn’t make changes It is preventable Through study, it is possible to combat obesity making diseases less frequent

8 Population Characteristics 120 overweight and mildly obese men and women ages 40-65 years old Live in Durham, North Carolina or surrounding area Sedentary lifestyle, BMI of 25-35, non-diabetic, non- hypertensive LDL levels between 130-190 mg/dL, HDL levels less than 40 mg/dL for men and 45 mg/dL for women (dyslipidemia) No individuals with metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, or coronary heart disease were allowed

9 Research Goal To determine what amount of daily exercise for adults should be recommended for weight loss, maintenance, and general overall health

10 Research Testing Subjects were randomized into three different groups based upon intensity Group one exercise- high amount at vigorous intensity, 20 miles a week at 65-80% of VO2max Group two exercise- low amount of vigorous intensity, 12 miles a week at 65-80% of VO2max Group three exercise- low amount of moderate intensity, 12 miles a week at 40-55% of VO2max Group one was to expend 23 kcal/kg of body weight a week. Groups two and three were to expend 14 kcal/kg per week

11 Data Collection Dietary evaluations conducted to ensure subjects maintained caloric intake Height measurement, two baseline weight measurements, and two end body weight measurements were administered to avoid daily fluctuations Body composition was taken using the sum of four skinfolds (abdominal waist, minimal waist, hips, thigh circumference)

12 Test Results There is a relationship between exercise and the variables of body weight, composition, skinfold, and circumference Group one showed greater results than the other two groups regarding weight change, lean body mass percent, fat mass, skinfolds, and hip circumference Exercise duration has a greater effect than intensity! Minimal level of walking six miles a week or exercise of same caloric expenditure should be baseline for adults

13 Exercise Effects on Body Weight/Mass

14 Exercise Effects on Percent Skinfold Measurements

15 Exercise Effects on Circumferences

16 Exercise Prescription

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