2 INTRODUCTIONWHILE YOU WATCH THE YOU TUBE CLIP RECORD A MIND MAP FOR THE CELTSContentsEVIDENCE FOR WARLIKE NATURE, written and archaeologicalEVIDENCE FOR CIVILIZED CULTURE, written and archaeological
3 PROBLEMS OF EVIDENCEBecause what we call Celtic culture has existed for more than 2,700 years, and has ranged across much of central and northwestern Europe, it is not easy to define in simple terms.Further problems derive from the fact that it was an oral society.Most written sources are non Celtic, often from writers who fought the Celts.Archaeological evidence is fragmentary and often contradicts the written sources.No society is static. Any attempt to explain the society must include change over time
4 Different Perspectives Explain the different contexts of the authors “The whole race….is war mad, and both high spirited and quick for battle, although otherwise simple and not ill mannered” The Geography, Strabo“ Among them are to be found lyric poets whom they call bards. These men sing to the accompaniment of instruments which are like lyres….Philosophers…and men learned in religious affairs are unusually honoured” Diodorus Siculus“There were countless horns and trumpets being blown simultaneously in their ranks and as the whole army was also shouting war cries, there arose such a babel….Besides this aspect and the movements of the naked warriors in the front ranks made a terrifying spectacle.” Polybius“ the enemy showed such bravery that when their front ranks had fallen, those immediately behind stood on their prostrate bodies.” Julius Caesar“ When their enemies fall they cut off their heads and fasten them about the necks of their horses….and these first fruits of battle they fasten by nails upon their houses… The heads of their most distinguished enemies they embalm in cedar oil and carefully preserve in a cherst, and these they exhibit to strangers..” Diodorus SiculusUsing the information on pg93 explain the contextual bias of the above writers. Can the information be regarded as useful?
5 Timeline Hallstatt Culture Celts Romans Mycenae New Kingdom San Dai Using the information on pg96 explain how History may impact on the archaeological record of the La Tene periodIron Age Begins 800 B.C.Hallstatt CultureCeltsRomansMycenaeNew KingdomSan DaiEmpire1500B.C.1000B.C.500 B.C.A.D 1
7 ORIGINS"T he name Celt originated with the ancient Greeks, who called the barbarian peoples of central Europe Keltoi. Rather that being a broad cultural genetic 'race,' the Celts were a broad cultural-linguistic group The ancestors of the Celts were the people of the Urnfield culture, so-called because they buried their dead in cremation urns in flat ground. Between 1200 and 700 BC, they spread westward from their eastern European homeland into the area of modern Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and France. Here, there culture developed into a recognizably Celtic form. The earliest stage of Celtic culture is called the Hallstatt, after a village in the Austrian Salzkammergut where archeologists discovered important artifacts. At hallstatt and other places with the 'hall' (salt) name - Hallein, Helle, Schwabisch Hall - the Celts' wealth was based upon salt extraction and sale. The technology of iron, too, was embraced by innovative Celtic blacksmiths, who produced the best metal in Europe, that was in great demand outside Celtic Areas. An important two-way tradeREAD PG AND EXPLAIN THE DISTINCTIVE CONTRIBUTION OF THE HALSTATT AGE TO THE CELTIC CULTURE?
9 EXPLAIN THE FACTORS THAT PROMOTED GROWTH AND EXPANSION
10 A FACTIONAL GROUP how might this impact on them, given the proximity to a growing Roman Empire?
11 CHANGE AND CONTINUITY By the seventh century BC, the Hallstatt people had become prosperous in the salt and iron businesses. In around 650 BC, the Celts began to re-exchange raids with the Greeks and Etruscans, elements of whose culture they adopted. By adding and adapting Graeco-Etruscan elements to the Hallstatt culture, the characteristically Celtic style of art came into being. As a result of this, in northeastern France, Switzerland, and the middle Rhine, a new stage of Celtic development took place. Archeologists call it the early La Tene period, after the definitive artifacts found at La Tene, on Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. During the Classical period of Greece and Rome, Celtic culture was predominant north of the Alps. Celtic technicians of the La Tene period were technically superior to their Greek and Roman counterparts. Their superior weaponry, including a new type of sword, chain mail, and chariots, enabled the Celts to mount military expeditions against neighboring tribes and nations, including the Greeks and Romans. Celtic fighting men had such a good reputation that they were in great demand as mercenaries. Caesar was known to use Gallic cavalry in his victory over Pompey
13 FINDS FROM LAKE NEUSCHATEL Iron Age site on the shores of Lake Neuchatel in western Switzerland, discovered in 1857 when the water level in the lake was unusually low. This revealed timber piles and a wide range of iron objects, especially weapons.Subsequent excavations by Emile Vouga between 1880 and 1885 and William Wabre and Paul Vouga between 1907 and 1917 have resulted in the recovery of a vast collection of objects, human skeletal material, and further evidence for timber structures, but no certain evidence for the purpose or nature of the site.While some scholars see La Tène as a settlement, others interpret it a timber platform on the edge of the lake, approached via timber causeways, from which votive deposits and perhaps burials were made.In support of this is the relative poverty of domestic debris from the site and the abundance of high-quality iron and bronze weapons and personal ornaments including: 166+ swords and scabbards, 269+ spearheads, 29 shields, 382+ brooches, and 158 belt clasps. In addition there is a bronze cauldron, dart wheels, wooden buckets, and tools for metalworking, woodworking, and leatherworking.
15 La Tene socioety spear A long wooden pole with a pointed steel head. shieldWooden piece of armor carried on the arm to protect against enemy blows.breechesFull pants that were characteristic of Gallic attire; they were pulled in at the waist with a belt and tied at the ankle with straps.helmetProtective metal headpiece decorated with depictions of animals, horns or bird wings
16 LA TENE CULTURE The archeological site of La Tene is on the northern edge of Lake Neuchatel, Switzerland. The name of thissite gives its name to the cultures of the late Iron Age inEurope with the earliest being in he sixth century. Thepeople associated with this culture are the mostsuccessful people, commonly known as the Celts, andthis site is a representative site for the Celticdevelopment and expansion.La Tene was discovered in 1857 by Hansli Kopp. WhatKopp found at the site was ancient iron weapons andtimber piles driven into the bed of the lake. Between theyears of 1860 and 1880 the lake was dredged and drained, exposing human remains, swords, spearheads,
18 Shape of societyRoutines of daily life varied greatly from region to regionBest evidence comes from Gaul (France)Organization“Heroic” warrior chiefsWarrior nobility“Men of art” (craftsmen, bards, druids)Embedded economy based on farming and animal husbandryPolitical identity based on kinshipChiefdoms were “portable”Roman evidence of idiosyncratic behaviorBoys could not be seen in the presence of their fathers until they were adults (~14-15) (Julius Caesar)Homosexuality, especially between men and un-related boys, was common (Athenaeus)Read pg Summarize the different social and political structures mentioned by the ancient and modern authors. How do witness 9,10 help to resolve the different views of the ancients?
19 People, population, and disease Romans described Celts as “giants”Women have greater social importancePolyandry?Most Celtic burials reveal hard deaths (injuries, infections)“Warrior Surgeon”Buried with weapons and medical equipmentTrephining saw
20 Celtic Women whispers of history Celtic women were powerful queens as well. The most famous warrior-queen was Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni on the southeast coast of Britain, who led a rebellion against the Governor Suetonius and by extension the Emperor Nero in 60/61 C.E. She succeeded in uniting several tribes and these laid waste to modern-day Colchester, Saint-Albans and London, where she was vanquished at the Battle of Watling Street. She poisoned herself to avoid capture.Celtic women could own property, divorce their husbands, and were often engaged in the political, intellectual, spiritual and judicial aspects of their communities. As wives, they were not segregated in their homes, as were Greek women, and had greater freedom of movement than Roman matrons. Although they were still subject to their husbands’ authority, since the Celts were a warrior culture, this was balanced by a right to equal justice.Supplement your notes from pg
21 Feasting and FightingSocial power was often cemented and transferred through generous acts feasting, prestige goods“The keltoi would often exchange a slave for an amphora of wine” – DiodorusMost warfare was internecine war between clansEventually, Celtic groups would band to fight against the RomansCeltic warriors sought personal gloryRoman warfare was businessUSING INFORMATION ON PAG125 EXPLAIN WHY DINING WAS SO IMPORTANT TO CELTIC MALES. SUPPORT WITH EVIDENCE
22 EVIDENCE FROM ART WARRIORS OR ARTISTS? READ PGS BRIEFLY DESCRIBE LA TENE CELTIC ART. SUPPORT FROM THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD
24 THE CARNYX http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hVAWwWi0DbE&feature=related The Carnyx was a long Celtic trumpet made of beaten bronze and held vertically so that the sound travels from more than three metres above the ground. It was known through much of Europe from about 200BC to 200AD and was widely depicted - notably on the Gundestrup bowl which shows three carnyces being played simultaneously. The best surviving part of a carnyx was found in North East Scotland and exhibits local design elements. The end of the instrument is in the form of a wild boar's head, and it has a movable tongue and lower jaw.
25 POLYBIUS 3RD CENTURY BC“On the other hand the fine order and the noise of the Celtic host terrified the Romans; for there were countless trumpeters and horn blowers and since the whole army was shouting its war cries at the same time there was such a confused sound that the noise seemed to come not only from the trumpeters and the soldiers but also from the countryside which was joining in the echo. No less terrifying were the appearance and gestures of the naked warriors in front, all of whom were in the prime of life and of excellent physique.”READ PGS WRITE A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF CELTIC WAREFARE. SUPPORT WITH EITHER ARCHAEOLOGICAL OR WRITTEN EVIDENCE.
28 Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar Vercingetorix would walk in the Gallic triumph in 46 in Rome before his traditional execution.
29 WETWANG BURIALS- YORKSHIRE Initially the chariot burials were regarded as warrior graves given the recorded use of chariots as weapons of warThe discovery of a female chariot burial begs the investigation of a broader significance for the chariot in celtic culture.Diodorus Siculus says“In both journeys and battles the Gauls use 2 horse chariots which carry both warrior and charioteer”
30 Broader uses of the chariot Civilian transport: travelling, moving persons from one point to another.Driving to battle: military transport.Representation: public exhibition of high social status.Sports and recreation: friendly physical competition, entertainment or peaceful conflict resolution.Mortuary ritual: a platform to present, transport and lay the dead to rest.
31 VixVix, in northern France, is the site of a burial of an Iron Age “princess”.The burial took place around 500 B.C.The woman was on the bed of a ceremonial cart, which was placed in a large square chamber in the ground.She was buried with a heavy gold collar and the tomb was filled with a wealth of exotic, funerary offerings.WATCH THE YOUTUBE CLIP.DESCRIBE THE 2 BURIALS AND WHAT THEY REVEAL ABOUT CELTIC CULTURE.INTERPRETATION???????????
32 THE DRUIDS The Celtic Druids and Early Christianity The Celtic Druids A druid was a member of the priestly and learned class in the ancient Celtic societies of Western Europe, Britain and Ireland. They were suppressed by the Roman government and disappear from the written record by the second century CE. Druids combined the duties of priest, judge, scholar, and teacher.The Celtic communities that Druids served were polytheistic. They also show signs of animism, in their reverence for various aspects of the natural world, such as the land, sea and sky, and their veneration of other aspects of nature, such as sacred trees and groves (the oak and hazel were particularly revered), tops of hills, streams, lakes and plants such as the mistletoe. Fire was regarded as a symbol of several divinities and was associated with cleansing. Purported ritual killing and human sacrifice were aspects of druidic culture that shocked classical writers
33 Druids and Human Sacrifice Druids represented an upper class of “educated” priestsNo texts, so little understanding of their methods/beliefsThe stereotypical idea of druids is mostly accurateHuman and animal sacrifice very commonPeople often stabbed or shot; then druids would “divine the future” by watching how people diedCauldrons used to catch blood from dying victims
34 DIODORUS SICULUS"They cut off the heads of enemies ... and attach them to the necks of their horses. Singing in triumph as they carried off these trophies, they nailed them upon their houses. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies, and preserve them carefully in a chest, and display them with pride to strangers ... Gathering in a chieftain's hall, sitting cross-legged on wolf skin, they would consume prodigious portions of wild boar. And guzzle wine, beer, or mead until they fell 'into a stupor or a state of madness.'"
35 GODS, GODESSES AND FESTIVALS Epona: Gallic horse goddess with fertility aspects. The horse was a major symbol of energy, power and fertility. Sequana: Goddess of the Seine. Her totem bird was the duck.Morrigan (Phantom Queen): Goddess of war and vengeance, magic and prophecy. Usually seen in the guise of a crow or raven near battlefields. Sometimes she would appear as an old woman washing the bloody clothes of a warrior who was going to die. In one tale, she (death goddess) mates with the Dagda (god of life) on Samhain, representing the great universal forces at work.Cernunnos: ‘The horned one,’ lord of animals. He is shown wearing deer antlers and a torc. He holds a torc in his right hand and a serpent in his other hand. He is associated with the ‘wild hunt’ in which spirits of the dead were carried to the Otherworld. He controlled the culling, purifying and health of the herds.Samhain: Celebrated on November 1st, the most important festival, marking the start of the Celtic year and the beginning of winter. Celebrated on the eve and day of November 1, it coincides with the modern Halloween, the barriers between the world of the living and that of the gods and the dead (Otherworld) were thin
36 THE GODDESS EPONAAmong the Celtic animal species the horse was the only one whose meat was not consumed. This was undoubtedly connected with the special, privileged status of the horse in the Celtic society. In fact, this avoidance of horse meat was one of the earliest in the world. It probably meant that man did not want to eat the meat of his close comrade-in-arms, an animal species that was directly associated with a goddess (Epona)This special status of the horse is clearly reflected in its remains too. The number of horse bones is small in settlements (the dead horses were probably buried outside the settlements). The overwhelming majority of the bones was complete and unbroken and rarely showed cut marks.
37 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD SUPPORT OR REFUTE? Due to the ornamental nature of the Gundestrup cauldron and its size it is often assumed that the bowl was used for either sacrificial or sacred purposes. It was found in a peat bog in Denmark and was thought to be either a trade item or more significantly a royal gift
38 Skilled CraftsmenUse the informatio n on pg describe the Gundestrup cauldron and explain what it reveals about the celtic culture
39 MetallurgistsBoth sexes loved jewelry: brooches decorated with gold filigree, cuttlefish shell, garnets, lapis, and other stones; buckles of gold filigree and stones; pins and linked pins with animal-style decoration; necklaces of amber, granulation and chip carving. They wore torques, pendants, bracelets, pins and necklaces. The women sometimes sewed little bells on the fringed ends of their tunics. The elaborate intertwinings of their artwork was a guard against the evil eye or curses.From workshops in the late Bronze and early Iron age to the early Christian Era a wealth of objects were produced that changed the course of history. Some of these include the first chainmail armour, seamless iron rims for wheels, they pioneered the iron plowshare, and they gave shape to chisels and saws, tin snips, and hammers, and they were the first to put Iron shoes on horse's. Mastery over metal was a hallmark of Celtic civilisation.
40 TORCSThe torc was a sign of nobility and high social status: a decoration awarded to warriors for their deeds in battle, as well as a divine attribute, since some depictions of Celtic gods wear one or more torcs. Images of the god Cernunnos wearing one torc around his neck, with torcs hanging from his antlers or held in his hand, have been found.
41 SKILLED SURGEONTomb 7 in the cemetery of München- Obermenzing is an extraordinary monu- ment This cremation grave (La Tène C: third-early second century B.C.) contained the weapons of a warrior who was also a surgeon. The iron surgical instruments included an unidentifiable Shaft, a trephining-saw and a rounded-off tenaculum with an eyelet handle, which bears a remarkable resemblance to a modern early twentieth-century probe. Go- ing by modern standards, instruments of the kind could have been used for operating both on the body and on the skull
44 PRODUCTIVE FARMERS ACHIEVING MODERN WHEAT YIELDS READ PG 116 AND EXPLAIN THE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT EFFECTIVE FARMING SKILLS AND TRADINGUse the eyewitness quotes and exhibit 20
45 COLYGNEY CALENDARThe Continental Celtic calendar as reconstructed from the calendars of Coligny and Villards d'Heria had the following properties:it was a lunisolar calendar, attempting to synchronize the solar year and the lunar month.the months were lunar. Scholars disagree as to whether the start of the month was the new moon or the full moon, or per Pliny and Tacitus perhaps even the First Quarter.the common lunar year contained 354 or 355 days.“All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition has been handed down by the Druids. For that reason they compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night.” JULIUS CAESAR
47 HillfortsDuring the Iron Age around 500 B.C., fortifications were first constructed around growing villages placed on hilltops.Such hillforts had administrative, religious, economic, and residential functions.Occupation could have been as high as 2,000-4,000 people.Large pits were dug for storage, water reservoirs, and other purposes.Similar to a middle eastern tell
48 AN IBERIAN HILLFORT DIGGING, MEASURING, DRAWING, RESCONSTRUCTION
49 HEUNEBERG HILLFORTAerial view of the Heuneburg hillfort with the Danube River in the foregroundHigh status grave goods
50 Maiden Castle The hilltop was first used around 3,700 B.C. Maiden Castle was the center of an elaborate landscape of henge monuments and other structures.Some of the walls were as high as 65 feet.Over 20,000 slingshots were found in caches near the walls of the structure.Maiden Castle fell to the Roman legions and their siege artillery in A.D. 43 after intensive fighting.
51 OPPIDA“The unifying factor in Celtic Europe in the first century B.C. was the spread of the oppida, the first cities created by the Celts.”oppida can be defined as follows: they were vast fortified sites covering several dozen hectares, usually located on high ground. Defense consisted of a rampart and a ditch. The ramparts were continuous, and if necessary could take advantage of the natural contours of the landThe fortifications contain large gateways, through which roads lead to the center of the oppida. These roads then divide into streets arranged according to various axes (Staré Hradisko in Moldavia). The streets thus delimit "blocks" of public religious buildings, or constructions containing residential and workshop areas. In fact it would seem that specialized districts can be identified: areas occupied by craftsmen, by the dwellings of the aristocracy, by particular religious functions, or by certain trades (like the enigmatic cross-shaped building discovered at Villeneuve-Saint-Germain in France)
52 MANCHING OPPIDA TRACING CERAMICS The archaeologist uses the help of science to determine the origin of ceramics. The provenance of ceramics, or better of the clay it is made of, can be exactly localized. Different clay deposits exhibit characteristic trace element patterns, and pottery made from that clay carries its trace element distribution as a fingerprint. The trace element contents are determined by neutron activation analysis, the most accurate method of trace element analysis.
54 FOLLOW UP ACTIVITYUSING THE POWERPOINT AND CHAPTER HANDOUT, COMPOSE A TABLE OF ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT BY STRABO“The whole race is war-mad, high-spirited and quick to battle…”.