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Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Middle Adulthood  Ages 40 to 65  Continuation of early adulthood changes:  time orientation  physical  cognitive © wong sze yuen/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

3 Vision Changes in Middle Adulthood  Presbyopia: “old eyes”:  inability to adjust focus to varying distances  Pupil shrinks, lens yellows, vitreous changes:  poor vision in dim light  decline in color discrimination  Glaucoma risk © Wilson Araujo/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

4 Hearing Changes in Middle Adulthood Presbycusis: “old hearing”:  initially, decline in sensitivity to high frequencies  gender, cultural differences: men show earlier, more rapid decline  hearing aids, modifications to listening environment, communication can help © Kzenon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

5 Skin Changes in Middle Adulthood  Wrinkles:  forehead: starting in thirties  crow’s feet: forties  Sagging:  face, arms, legs  Age spots:  after age 50  Faster with sun exposure, and for women © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

6 Muscle–Fat Makeup in Middle Adulthood  Middle-age spread common: fat gain in torso:  men: upper abdomen, back  women: waist, upper arms  Very gradual muscle declines  Can be avoided:  low-fat diet  exercise, especially resistance training Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

7 Anti-Aging Effects of Calorie Restriction  Restricted diet benefits diverse nonprimate species:  longer life  reduced incidence of disease  In primates and humans, more years of healthy life, not longer life  Calorie-restriction mimetics may yield same health benefits as calorie restriction © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

8 Skeletal Changes in Middle Adulthood  Bones broaden but become more porous:  loss in bone density  women at greater risk  Loss in bone strength:  disks collapse, height shrinks  bones fracture more easily, heal more slowly  Healthy lifestyle can slow bone loss Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

9 Climacteric and Menopause  Gradual end of fertility:  menopause follows 10-year climacteric  age range: late thirties to late fifties  earlier in non-childbearing women, smokers  Drop in estrogen:  monthly cycles shorten, eventually stop  can cause difficulties:  complaints about sexual functioning  decreased skin elasticity, loss of bone mass Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

10 Menopausal Symptoms Linked to menopause hot flashes/night sweats sexual difficulties Not linked to menopause, other causes should be investigated irritability sleep difficulties depression Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

11 Menopause Symptoms Around the World Figure 15.1 (Adapted from Obermeyer, 2000; Shea, 2006.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

12 Hormone Therapy for Menopause Benefits reduces hot flashes, vaginal dryness some protection against bone loss Risks heart attack, stroke, blood clots cancer gallbladder disease Alzheimer’s and other dementias Alternatives gabapentin, antidepressants, black cohosh for hot flashes medications to prevent bone loss Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

13 Reactions to Menopause  Individual differences:  importance of childbearing capacity, physical attractiveness  highly educated women usually have more positive attitudes  Cultural differences:  ethnic differences in the United States: African- American and Mexican-American women hold especially favorable views  SES, physical and psychological health linked to reactions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

14 Reproductive Changes in Men  Decrease in  sperm volume, motility starting in twenties  semen after age 40  Gradual decline in testosterone:  sexual activity stimulates production  Erection difficulties:  frequent problems may be linked to anxiety, disease, injury, loss of sexual interest  Viagra and other drugs offer temporary relief Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

15 Health in Middle Age  85% rate as excellent or good, a decline from early adulthood  More chronic diseases than in early adulthood  Research on women increasing © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

16 Sexuality in Middle Adulthood  Slight drop in frequency among married couples:  stability of sexual activity is typical  best predictor is marital happiness  Intensity of response declines:  slower arousal due to climacteric  Sex still important, enjoyable to most Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

17 Leading Causes of Death in Midlife, United States Figure 15.2 (Adapted from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

18 Cancer in Middle Adulthood  One-third of U.S. midlife deaths:  more men than women  higher in low SES  Results from mutations: germline or somatic  a complex interaction of heredity and environment contributes  Often curable; survival brings emotional challenges © GWImages/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

19 Cardiovascular Disease  Responsible for 25% of middle-aged deaths  “Silent killers”:  high blood pressure, cholesterol  atherosclerosis  Symptoms:  heart attack (blockage)  arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)  angina pectoris (chest pain) © wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

20 Osteoporosis  Severe bone loss, fragile bones  Causes:  normal aging:  with age, bones more porous, lose bone mass  menopause estrogen drop speeds loss  heredity, body build  lifestyle—diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use  Women develop osteoporosis earlier; men often overlooked Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

21 Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis  Diet:  vitamin D  calcium  Weight-bearing exercise  Strength training  Bone-strengthening medications  Early prevention © Maridav/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

22 Hostility and Health  Type A behavior pattern:  angry, impatient, competitive  prone to heart disease, other health problems  Expressed hostility:  angry outbursts, rudeness, criticism, contempt  predicts various cardiovascular problems Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

23 Managing Stress  Reevaluate the situation.  Focus on events you can control.  View life as fluid.  Consider alternatives.  Set reasonable goals.  Exercise regularly.  Use relaxation techniques.  Constructively reduce anger.  Seek social support. © littleny/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

24 Coping Styles Problem-Centered Coping  Identify and appraise problems  Choose and implement potential solutions Emotion-Centered Coping  Internal, private  Control distress when the situation can’t be changed Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

25 Exercise in Midlife  Physical and psychological benefits:  stress management  reduces disease risk  Barriers to beginning in middle age: time, energy, health, convenience, lack of facilities  Self-efficacy promotes exercise and is augmented by it  Activities that fit personal characteristics  Interventions to reach low-SES adults Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

26 Hardiness Control  Regard most experiences as controllable Commitment  Find interest and meaning in daily activities Challenge  View as normal part of life, chance for growth © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

27 Double Standard of Aging  Aging men rated more positively, women more negatively  Influenced by media, social messages  Appears to be declining, with n ew, positive view of middle age © michaeljung/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

28 Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid  Depends on basic information- processing skills:  detecting relationships among stimuli  speed of analyzing information  working memory Crystallized  Skills that depend on  accumulated knowledge  experience  good judgment  mastery of social conventions  Valued by person’s culture Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

29 Longitudinal Trends in Mental Abilities Figure 15.3 (From K. W. Schaie, 1994, “The Course of Adult Intellectual Development,” American Psychologist, 49, p Copyright © 1994 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission of American Psychological Association.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

30 Age-Related Slowing of Information Processing Neural Network View  Neurons in brain die, breaking neural connections  Brain forms new but less efficient connections Information-Loss View  Information lost at each step through cognitive system  Whole system slows down to inspect, interpret information Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

31 Attention in Middle Adulthood  More difficulties in  multitasking  focusing on relevant information  switching attention  combining visual information into meaningful patterns  inhibition  May be due to decline in processing speed  Experience, practice, training help adults compensate Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

32 Memory in Middle Adulthood  Working memory declines from twenties to sixties:  reduced use of memory strategies  slower processing, attention difficulties  Adults can compensate:  self-paced tasks  training in strategies  Few changes in  factual knowledge  procedural knowledge  metacognitive knowledge © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

33 Becoming a Student in Midlife  39% of U.S. college students are over age 25; 60% of them are women  Reasons are diverse:  job changes, seeking better income  life transitions  personal achievement, self-enrichment  Concerns:  academic abilities: aging and gender stereotypes  role overload Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk


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