2 ObjectivesDescribe the extent & causes of overweight in American societyDescribe the significance of body mass index to healthExplain why calorie-restriction weight loss regimens failList the features of sensible weight managementDiscuss the advantages & disadvantages of medical treatments for overweightDescribe common weight loss fads & fallaciesDefine anorexia nervosa, bulimia, & binge eating disorder
3 Overweight in AmericaApproximately 68% of the US population are overweight18% of children between 6 and 19 are overweight
4 Factors that influence weight status BehavioralEnviornmentalRelationships with othersStress managementAvailablility of healthful food choicesStressful environments
5 Overweight Predispose to illnesses, injuries Heart disease, high BPType 2 diabetes (leading to blindness , kidney failure, ulcers, amputations)Have more job related injuries (due to size)Metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, high blood sugar, triglycerides, abdominal body fat)Men: colon, rectum, prostate cancerWomen: breast, uterus, ovaries, gallbladder cancerSleep apneaGoutLiver cirrhosis
6 Why so many are overweight? Increases inDecreases incalorie dense foods eaten : energy expenditureMarketing of inexpensive, palatable foods (quick, fast food)portion sizessuburban livings (more cars, less walking)pace of life ( requiring more fast food & prepackaged meals for ease)general stress (resulting in comfort food dining & slower metabolism)Obesogen exposure (i.e.BPA, DEHP,triphenyltin – chemicals used to mfr. Plastics, pesticides, wood preservatives, slime inhibitors in water systems)physically demanding labor jobsleisure time physical activityP.E. & after school activities for many studentsTime to meal plan, shop, & prep wholesome foodsThe prevalence of overweight is proportional to the number of residents per fast food restaurant and the number of fast food restaurants in a community
7 Health related body size indexes BMI scalesHealthier to be between BMIWaist : Hip ratiosHealthier to be pear shaped than apple shapedWaist circumferenceGreater health risk>40 inches in men>35 inches in women
8 Terms to know BMI – body mass index Essential fat Obesity Storage fat A measure of body fatness, calculated by dividing weight in kg by height squared (in meters)Necessary fat for normal physiological functioningStorage fat exceeding 30% of body weightDepot fat; energy stored as fat in varied parts of body
9 Terms to know Energy balance triglyceride When energy consumed as food = the energy expended in livingA storage from of fat
10 Popular weight loss programs Low cal – reduce portion size to limit caloriesWeight Watchers, Jenney Craig, LA Weight Loss, Medifast, EdietsLow carb – reduce white foods and sometimes veggies/fruitsAtkins, South BeachLow fat – high complex carbs, little fatOrnish
11 Diets don’t workCalorie restrictions only work in short term, but body eventually resists weight lossMany regain the lost weight once stopping the “diet”Dieters get bored with limited foodsPrepackaged diet foods are expensive $$$$$
12 Key to Weight Loss = Calorie restriction + increased physical output
13 What works? Sensible weight management Daily moderate physical activity5 small high complex carb, low fat meals/snacksMonitoring weight & exerciseAvoiding fast food
14 Sensible & Successful weight-loser principles Live healthfullyForget slim, go for healthySet realistic goals (lose 5-10% of weight to reduce CV risk factors)Eat when hungry; don’t overeatEat healthy foodsExercise min. 20 minutes 3-4 times/weekLimit mindless snackingConsume little or no alcoholBe aware of eating triggersDon’t feed your feelingsJournal & monitor intake, output
15 To lose 1 pound of stored fat….. You must burn 3500 calories
16 1 pound of fat = burning 3500 calories To lose 1 pound/monthPlan diet & physical activity to produce a net deficit of 120 calories/dayTo lose 1 pound/weekPlan diet & physical activity for a net daily deficit of 500 calories
17 Medical Management of Overweight CounselingHypnotherapyMedicationAppetite suppressants, fat absorption blockersSurgeryBariatric surgery (BMI’s over 40)1% risk of deathConstricting the stomach, cutting out part of the GI tractLiposuctionMost common cosmetic surgerySucks fat from beneath skin; may replace it elsewhere to reshape the body
18 Terms to know A person’s mental image of his/her body A preoccupation with an imagined defect in one or more of one’s body partsCessation of menstruation, disordered eating & weak bones from osteoporosis that affects women athletesBody imageBody dysmorphic disorderFemale athlete triad
19 Terms to know Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia Binge eating disorderComplex psychophysiological conditions that manifest as compulsive, unusual eating behaviorFear of obesity, prolonged refusal to eat, sometimes resulting in deathBinge eating & purgingUncontrolled consumption of large quantities of food in short time period, despite lacking feeling of hunger
21 Lose weight in your sleep. Lose excess pounds in just 1 week with… Lose weight in your sleep! Lose excess pounds in just 1 week with…..!! Just 1 pill at every meal & the pounds melt off!!!The US Federal Trade Commission estimates that weight loss scams are the most prevalent types of fraud, affecting nearly 5 million Americans/year.
22 Weight control fads & fallacies Body wrapsHot linens, saran wrap, rubber waist belts applied with herbal compounds to supposedly open pores to let fat and toxins escape the bodyChemicals & supplementsSuppressants/energy boostersFat burners/fat blockersBulk producing agentsVitamins, minerals and amino acids
23 Get Informed: don’t buy worthless weight loss products Dietary supplements are unregulatedDon’t do a general web searchLikely will find more sites that sell rather than informCheck outNational Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine https://nccih.nih.gov/US Food & Drug Admin
24 Reasons for The Freshmen 15 Away from home with more independent food choicesNot always the healthiest choicesFragmented schedules that promote meal skipping & high calorie snackingLittle time invested in physical activityExposure to food consumption factorsVending machines, food trucks, dining facility food, academic and social stress
25 Review 1Approximately 2/3 of the US is overweight and at risk for a variety of illnesses, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and gallbladder diseaseObesity is defined as a body weight (20% for men, 30% for women) over the recommended weight for height or a body mass index greater than 30.Health problems are less likely when the waist to hip ratio is less than .8 for women or .95 for meBody fatness is maintained by neural and hormonal signals acting on the brain, which controls feelings of hunger and satiety. Many physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors affect the brain and thus body weight.
26 Review 2People eat for reasons other than hunger, such as social interaction, recreation, and relief from stress.Successful weight control involves changing eating and exercise habitsHealthy body weight corresponds to having a body mass index between 19 and 25There are a variety of ways to achieve a healthy body weight. Starvation dieting is not one of themCounseling, surgery and medications can help some overweight people lose body fat and maintain a healthy body weightThere are 3 major ineffective width control schemes: body wraps, diet pills, and diet programsThree common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating disorder.