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Managing a Healthy Weight Chapter 6. Objectives Describe the extent & causes of overweight in American society Describe the significance of body mass.

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Presentation on theme: "Managing a Healthy Weight Chapter 6. Objectives Describe the extent & causes of overweight in American society Describe the significance of body mass."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing a Healthy Weight Chapter 6

2 Objectives Describe the extent & causes of overweight in American society Describe the significance of body mass index to health Explain why calorie-restriction weight loss regimens fail List the features of sensible weight management Discuss the advantages & disadvantages of medical treatments for overweight Describe common weight loss fads & fallacies Define anorexia nervosa, bulimia, & binge eating disorder

3 Overweight in America Approximately 68% of the US population are overweight 18% of children between 6 and 19 are overweight

4 Factors that influence weight status Behavioral Relationships with others Stress management Enviornmental Availablility of healthful food choices Stressful environments

5 Overweight Predispose to illnesses, injuries Heart disease, high BP Type 2 diabetes (leading to blindness, kidney failure, ulcers, amputations) Have more job related injuries (due to size) Metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, high blood sugar, triglycerides, abdominal body fat) Men: colon, rectum, prostate cancer Women: breast, uterus, ovaries, gallbladder cancer Sleep apnea Gout Liver cirrhosis

6 Why so many are overweight? Increases in calorie dense foods eaten : energy expenditure Marketing of inexpensive, palatable foods (quick, fast food) portion sizes suburban livings (more cars, less walking) pace of life ( requiring more fast food & prepackaged meals for ease) general stress (resulting in comfort food dining & slower metabolism) Obesogen exposure (i.e.BPA, DEHP,triphenyltin – chemicals used to mfr. Plastics, pesticides, wood preservatives, slime inhibitors in water systems) Decreases in physically demanding labor jobs leisure time physical activity P.E. & after school activities for many students Time to meal plan, shop, & prep wholesome foods

7 Health related body size indexes BMI scales Healthier to be between BMI Waist : Hip ratios Healthier to be pear shaped than apple shaped Waist circumference Greater health risk >40 inches in men >35 inches in women

8 Terms to know BMI – body mass index Essential fat Obesity Storage fat A measure of body fatness, calculated by dividing weight in kg by height squared (in meters) Necessary fat for normal physiological functioning Storage fat exceeding 30% of body weight Depot fat; energy stored as fat in varied parts of body

9 Terms to know Energy balance triglyceride When energy consumed as food = the energy expended in living A storage from of fat

10 Popular weight loss programs Low cal – reduce portion size to limit calories Weight Watchers, Jenney Craig, LA Weight Loss, Medifast, Ediets Low carb – reduce white foods and sometimes veggies/fruits Atkins, South Beach Low fat – high complex carbs, little fat Ornish

11 Diets don’t work Calorie restrictions only work in short term, but body eventually resists weight loss Many regain the lost weight once stopping the “diet” Dieters get bored with limited foods Prepackaged diet foods are expensive $$$$$

12 Key to Weight Loss = Calorie restriction + increased physical output

13 What works? Sensible weight management Daily moderate physical activity 5 small high complex carb, low fat meals/snacks Monitoring weight & exercise Avoiding fast food

14 Sensible & Successful weight-loser principles Live healthfully Forget slim, go for healthy Set realistic goals (lose 5-10% of weight to reduce CV risk factors) Eat when hungry; don’t overeat Eat healthy foods Exercise min. 20 minutes 3-4 times/week Limit mindless snacking Consume little or no alcohol Be aware of eating triggers Don’t feed your feelings Journal & monitor intake, output

15 To lose 1 pound of stored fat….. You must burn 3500 calories

16 1 pound of fat = burning 3500 calories To lose 1 pound/month Plan diet & physical activity to produce a net deficit of 120 calories/day To lose 1 pound/week Plan diet & physical activity for a net daily deficit of 500 calories

17 Medical Management of Overweight Counseling Hypnotherapy Medication Appetite suppressants, fat absorption blockers Surgery Bariatric surgery (BMI’s over 40) 1% risk of death Constricting the stomach, cutting out part of the GI tract Liposuction Most common cosmetic surgery Sucks fat from beneath skin; may replace it elsewhere to reshape the body

18 Terms to know Body image Body dysmorphic disorder Female athlete triad A person’s mental image of his/her body A preoccupation with an imagined defect in one or more of one’s body parts Cessation of menstruation, disordered eating & weak bones from osteoporosis that affects women athletes

19 Terms to know Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia Binge eating disorder Complex psychophysiological conditions that manifest as compulsive, unusual eating behavior Fear of obesity, prolonged refusal to eat, sometimes resulting in death Binge eating & purging Uncontrolled consumption of large quantities of food in short time period, despite lacking feeling of hunger

20 “Thin”

21 Lose weight in your sleep! Lose excess pounds in just 1 week with…..!! Just 1 pill at every meal & the pounds melt off!!! The US Federal Trade Commission estimates that weight loss scams are the most prevalent types of fraud, affecting nearly 5 million Americans/year.

22 Weight control fads & fallacies Body wraps Hot linens, saran wrap, rubber waist belts applied with herbal compounds to supposedly open pores to let fat and toxins escape the body Chemicals & supplements Suppressants/energy boosters Fat burners/fat blockers Bulk producing agents Vitamins, minerals and amino acids

23 Get Informed: don’t buy worthless weight loss products Dietary supplements are unregulated Don’t do a general web search Likely will find more sites that sell rather than inform Check out National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine https://nccih.nih.gov/ https://nccih.nih.gov/ US Food & Drug Admin

24 Reasons for The Freshmen 15 Away from home with more independent food choices Not always the healthiest choices Fragmented schedules that promote meal skipping & high calorie snacking Little time invested in physical activity Exposure to food consumption factors Vending machines, food trucks, dining facility food, academic and social stress

25 Review 1 Approximately 2/3 of the US is overweight and at risk for a variety of illnesses, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and gallbladder disease Obesity is defined as a body weight (20% for men, 30% for women) over the recommended weight for height or a body mass index greater than 30. Health problems are less likely when the waist to hip ratio is less than.8 for women or.95 for me Body fatness is maintained by neural and hormonal signals acting on the brain, which controls feelings of hunger and satiety. Many physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors affect the brain and thus body weight.

26 Review 2 People eat for reasons other than hunger, such as social interaction, recreation, and relief from stress. Successful weight control involves changing eating and exercise habits Healthy body weight corresponds to having a body mass index between 19 and 25 There are a variety of ways to achieve a healthy body weight. Starvation dieting is not one of them Counseling, surgery and medications can help some overweight people lose body fat and maintain a healthy body weight There are 3 major ineffective width control schemes: body wraps, diet pills, and diet programs Three common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating disorder.


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