# Statistics 2 Statistics 3 4 Health Risks Associated with Being Overweight Coronary heart disease Hypertension Hypercholesterolemia Diabetes 5.

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Statistics 2

Statistics 3

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Health Risks Associated with Being Overweight Coronary heart disease Hypertension Hypercholesterolemia Diabetes 5

Health Risks Associated with Being Overweight There are also health risks associated with being too thin! The body reacts to the lack of food by becoming extremely thin developing brittle hair and nails dry skin constipation, diarrhea reduced muscle mass, loss of menstrual cycle swelling of joints heart problems osteoporosis mental health issues death 6

BMI: A measure of body composition using a height-weight formula BMI is used to give us an idea of whether the client is obese, and the extent of their obesity Formula: – Body mass index (BMI) = weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squares – BMI = kg h 2 – BMI unit of measurement: kg/m 2 Pg 169 7

– A man weighs 86 kilograms, and is 1.89 meters tall. Calculate his BMI. – BMI = kg h 2 – BMI = 86 1.89 2 – BMI = 24.1 kg/m 2 Pg 169 8

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As BMI increases above the range of ‘obese’, so the risk increases for cardiovascular complications (including hypertension & stroke), cancer, diabetes etc. Pg 169 10

BMI does not actually measure body composition. It can be used as a quick measurement to check if an individual is overweight, but it is inaccurate. BMI does not distinguish between fat and muscle. Muscle is denser, thus heavier than fat. i.e. A person with a lot of muscle may be inaccurately described as obese. Pg 169 11

Stand with heels together Buttocks and upper back must be touching the wall Head must straight, eyes looking forward. Do not tilt the head up or down. The subject must try make themselves as tall as possible without lifting their heels or tilting their heads Place the head board flat on the subjects head, compressing the hair as much as possible. Record to the nearest 0.5cm 12

Check that the scale is reading zero, if it is not, set it back to zero The subject should be barefoot and have minimal clothing on. i.e. Nothing in their pockets such as cellphones, keys etc., take off heavy belts, jackets, & jewellery The subject should stand in the centre of the scale, with weight evenly distributed on both feet 13

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Hip-to-waist ratio (HWR) is taken as an indicator of the health risks associated with obesity, and in particular the risk of coronary heart disease. Regional Fat Deposition Fat stored in the abdominal area is a greater risk factor for CHD because it is closer to the heart and can easily mobilise into the blood stream and be taken to the heart. Hip-To-Waist Ratio 15

Hip-To-Waist Ratio Males store more fat centrally and have increased health risks associated with body fatness. Higher health risk Lower health risk 16

Hip-to-waist ratio = waist measurement in centimetres divided by hip measurement in centimetres. HWR = waist (cm) hip (cm) Pg 169 17

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A female has a waist measurement of 68cm, and a hip measurement of 101cm. Calculate her HWR. HWR = waist (cm) hip (cm) HWR = 68 cm 101cm HWR = 0.67 Classification: Low risk 19

Taken at the level of the belly button, with the stomach muscles relaxed and after normal expiration. The tape measure is put around the waist and a horizontal reading is taken. Ensure the tape is level all the way around. Take the reading from the side, not the front; respect the person’s personal space. Pg 169 20

Is taken with the client standing up, with their feet together. The measurement is taken at the widest circumference around the hips. Ensure the tape is level all the way around. Take measurement from the side, respect their personal space. Pg 169 21

Body Fat & Sports Performance Jockey: Average weight: 50.44kg Average height: 1.57m BMI: 20.46 Jockey: Average weight: 50.44kg Average height: 1.57m BMI: 20.46 Sumo Wrestler: Average weight: 219kg Average height: 1.91m BMI: 60.03 Sumo Wrestler: Average weight: 219kg Average height: 1.91m BMI: 60.03 22

Body Fat & Sports Performance Excess body fat can negatively influence many types of sport performance requiring jumping and running. High ratios of fat free mass to fat mass are generally positively related to sport. Athletes are leaner than sedentary individuals – regardless of gender. Extremely low fat mass in women can result in health problems (Refer: “too thin”). 23

Body Fat & Sports Performance Swimmer Ballet dancer Ballet dancer Rugby player Rugby player Volleyball player Volleyball player Body builder Body builder Sumo Wrestler Sumo Wrestler 24

Questions 1.What do the following abbreviations stand for: 1.BMI2 2.WHR2 2.What is the unit of measurement for BMI?1 3.What are the risks associated with being overweight?4 4.List 8 risks associated with being underweight.8 5.What is BMI; and what is it used for?4 6.What is the calculation used for BMI?2 7.A man weighs 76kg and is 1.71m tall. Calculate his BMI.2 8.In tabular form, write down the categories and range of BMI.12 9.What are the implications of a high BMI?2 10.What are the limitations of BMI?3 11.Write down the procedure for measuring height and weight.10 25

12.What is the WHR used for?2 13.Differentiate between the ‘apple’ and ‘pear’ body shape, also explain which one is of greater risk and why.6 14.Which shape is generally associated with males, and which shape is generally associated with females?2 15.What is the formula for measuring WHR?2 16.If a woman has a waist measurement of 72cm, and a hip measurement of 110cm, calculate her WHR.2 17.Describe the procedure for measuring WHR.8 18.How would BMI differ between a race horse jockey and a sumo wrestler, and why?6 19.How does the body composition of a ballet dancer differ from that of a body builder?4 Questions 26

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