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An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity……. Lucy Dumbell.

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Presentation on theme: "An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity……. Lucy Dumbell."— Presentation transcript:

1 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity……. Lucy Dumbell

2 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Today 1.What is obesity? 2.Why is obesity of concern? 3.What can we do to reduce the incidence of obesity?

3 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies What is obesity? ClassificationBMI (kg/m 2 ) Healthy weight18.5–24.9 Overweight25–29.9 Obesity I30–34.9 Obesity II35–39.9 Obesity III40 or more Obesity is when a person is carrying too much body fat for their height and sex (NHS, 2011)

4 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Look at the advice you can get …

5 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Assessment of risks BMI classification Waist circumference LowHighVery high OverweightNo increased risk Increased risk High risk Obesity IIncreased risk High riskVery high risk For men, waist circumference of less than 94 cm is low, 94–102 cm is high and more than 102 cm is very high. For women, waist circumference of less than 80 cm is low, 80–88 cm is high and more than 88 cm is very high. Assessment of the health risks associated with overweight and obesity in adults should be based on BMI and waist circumference as follows.

6 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies What intervention do we need? BMI classificationWaist circumferenceComorbidities present LowHighVery high Overweight Obesity I Obesity II Obesity III General advice on healthy weight and lifestyle Diet and physical activity Diet and physical activity; consider drugs Diet and physical activity; consider drugs; consider surgery High profile concern about children.

7 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity is when a horse is carrying too much body fat for their height, gender and breed Breed = Build Build = Bone, Muscle and Conformation OK, in horses then…. (Hal_macgregor.tripod.com, ND)(Hilly view farm, ND)

8 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Optimum weight.. For health For activity level For purpose (dailymail.co.uk, 2011) (hello.com, 2011)

9 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies How do we measure obesity? Horses do not have the researched methods that can be used on live horses by carers like humans do. Weight ???????????????????? Body Condition Score Actually only just beginning to be understood

10 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies (Henneke et al, 1983)

11 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Carroll and Huntington, 1988 A scale from 0 to 5 Commonly used in UK National Equine Welfare Council (NEWC) use this one Research built upon mixed group of horses and ponies

12 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies BCS (Dugdale et al, 2011) As BCS increases most tissue increase linearly – as one increased so does the other White Adipose Tissues (WAT) however increases exponentially with increasing BCS WAT was not well predicted by BCS So: a small change in BCS means a large change in WAT

13 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Body measurements Yes Heart girth Belly girth Measure at the end of the horse breathing out

14 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Why are horses obese? Consume more energy than they expend Seasonality – Autumn – Winter – Spring – Summer Horses are designed to change weight over the year. (Freeimagesarchive.com, ND)(telegraph.co.uk, 2011) (pollynoble.com, ND)

15 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Why are native ponies obese? ‘Throughout their evolution, ponies … adapted to survive in marginal and intensely seasonal, mountain and moorland habitats …..’ (Dugdale et al, 2011, in press) (Kehoe, 2011)

16 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity is bad !!

17 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity has consequences… Laminitis – Most common consequence – Must not be underestimated – All the research points at one thing It is best never to have laminitis in the first place Insulin resistance Risk factor for disease and mortality in domestic horses and ponies (Sillence et al, 2006 and Geor, 2008) Affects ability of organs to work Pro-inflammatory state

18 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Why is obesity of concern? Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Affects all ages – typically young and middle aged 1.Insulin resistance 2.Obesity 3.Hepatic Insulin Resistance 4.Pancreatic Insufficiency (Frank, 2009)

19 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Why is obesity of concern? Stress on body’s systems Carrying additional weight increases the rate of oxygen consumption and cost of transport (Wickler et al, 2001) i.e. horses that carry more weight do more work than horses of less weight Work Risk of injury More strain on whole body Respiratory and Circulatory

20 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies At risk populations….

21 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies BoneEndAge (months) ScapulaProximal36+ Distal9-18 HumerusProximal26-42 Distal11-34 RadiusProximal11-25 Distal22-42 UlnaProximal27-42 Distal2-12 (some up to 48) Third Metacarpal boneProximalBefore birth Distal6-18 Proximal phalanxProximal6-15 DistalBefore birth-1 Middle phalanxProximal6-15 DistalBefore birth –1week Distal phalanxProximalBefore birth Table 1Ranges of growth plate closure times in equine thoracic limbs (Stashak, 1987) Young Horses

22 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies The geriatric horse Fat mass increases with age and is redistributed Results in greater white adipose tissue (WAT) (Villareal et al, 2005) So what? WAT releases inflammatory mediators (Harvey, 2008) So they are having an inflammatory response Decreases with reduction in fat/ WAT (Adams et al, 2009)

23 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Action …………………

24 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies What can we do? Is it as simple as the idea that if you consume more calories than you use you gain weight and.. If you consume less calories than you use then you lose weight? Simply put …. Yes There are veterinary conditions that affect it but this is still true.

25 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Consume less ….. Well restricting diet is an obvious start But how?? Horse needs fibre Horse needs to spend large proportion of day consuming fibre However is ‘trickle feeder’ So eating only a little at a time for long times

26 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Feed the horse you want E.g. Dugdale et al 2010 Welsh Mountain Pony Mares Start average weight 257kg But obese so approximately 25% of this weight comprised of excess WAT So calculated ration on 75% of start weight – 193kg pony N.B. BCS not useful to gauge early weight loss but heart and belly girths were 2. Ponies compensated – so shutting them in for periods not effective.

27 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Nutrients You must feed sufficient nutrients: – Including protein – Minerals – Vitamins When do you need more: – Exercise – Growth – Repair – Lactation Get advice if unsure (often free)

28 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Native breeds Clinically useful weight loss – ~ 1% of weight weekly Energy intake should be limited to less than 70% of maintenance (van Weyenberg et al 2008 and Dugdale et al, 2010) Fat stores at neck useful for extreme weight loss but palpation and heart and belly girths useful for modest weight loss.

29 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Trickle feeders Eat for longer vs. less energy Multiple forages – Multiple types –4–4 – Different stem lengths count as different Different forages – Straw – Meadow hay/grasses – Mature grass – ‘Rough grazing’

30 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Exercise more If obese high intensity exercise should be avoided So low intensity exercise Start off with frequent, short periods Try not to immobilise, e.g. put in a small stable, unless you have to Barn kept may have many more advantages and enable social interaction as well Turn out on inclines

31 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Obesity …. Not exactly understood in horse More knowledge being formed and communicated all the time The Welsh Pony has been a subject recently (so more accurate information about) Particularly serious in young horses Monitor Recognise Act

32 An outstanding college for land-based courses, sport and equine studies Many thanks !!!!! I hope that this was of interest


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