Managing A Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight requires an understanding of several important factors such as: why you eat, weight control, metabolism, and eating disorders.
Why You Eat? Psychological reasons Physical reasons
Psychological Reasons Appetite – your desire for food Appetite is learned response to external influences (Thanksgiving). Lonely Bored A habit connected to an activity (eating popcorn at a movie)
Physical Reasons Hunger – the body’s physical need for food.
Metabolism Metabolism is the process of changing energy sources into energy. For example, food proteins are metabolized into energy or heat to be used or absorbed by the body. digesting food and nutrients.
Assessing Body Composition Body Mass Index (BMI) Skinfold Measurements Underwater Weighing Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) Height Weight Charts Waist To Hip Ratio
Body Mass Index Measure your height in inches without shoes. Measure your weight without shoes. Use BMI chart Complete handout
Body Mass Index Body Mass Index can be calculated using pounds and inches with this equation lbs. x 703 (inches) x (inches) 220 lbs. x 703 (75 inches) x (75 inches) = 27.5
Body Mass Index Classifications ClassificationRiskBMI Score UnderweightModerateless than 18.5 NormalVery low18.5 - 24.9 OverweightLow25.0 - 29.9 Obese Class 1Moderate30.0 - 34.9 Obese class 2High35.0 - 39.9 Extreme obesityVery highgreater than 40.0
3 Site Skinfold Measurements Male Chest Abdomen Thigh Women Triceps Suprailium Thigh
Underwater Weighing Best way to assess Immersed in a tank of water and then weighed. Measurements of your lung capacity is taken A formula is applied to your underwater weight and lung capacity
Waist-To-Hip Evidence indicates that people with a very large waist compared to hip size tend to have more fat cells inside the body and may be at risk for health problems.` You are at increased risk for health problems if: 1.You are a man and your waist measurement is greater than 40 in. (101.6 cm). 2.You are a woman and your waist measurement is greater than 35 in. (88.9 cm).
Body Types There are 3 basic categories of body types: Endomorph Ectomorph Mesomorph
Endomorph Soft Body Underdeveloped Muscles Round Physique Weight Loss is Difficult Gains Muscle Easily Like the Mesomorph. Famous Endomorphs: John Goodman, Roseanne, Jack Black.
Mesomorph Athletic Hard Body Hourglass Shaped (Female) Rectangular Shaped (Male) Mature Muscle Mass Muscular Body Excellent Posture Gains Muscle Easily Gains Fat More Easily Than Ectomorphs Thick Skin Famous Mesomorphs: Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, the majority of Mr. Universe winners.
Ectomorph Definitive "Hard Gainer" Delicate Built Body Flat Chest Fragile Lean Lightly Muscled Small Shouldered Takes Longer to Gain Muscle Thin Famous Ectomorphs: Lisa Kudrow, Kate Moss, Brad Pitt, Seth Green, Edward Norton
South Beach Diet The South Beach Diet is not low-fat or low-carb. It teaches you to rely on the right carbs and the right fats. Developed by renowned cardiologist Dr. Arthur Agatston.
Adkins Diet Rules of the Diet: The basics of this fad diet is an extremely low carbohydrate level. Avoiding carbohydrates in your diet keeps your body from adding weight. So, for this diet to work you have to eat less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day. Free Meats and Cheeses: Since meats and cheeses have no carbohydrates, you can eat as much as you want on the Atkins diet.
Binge Eating Consuming an unusually large quantity of food in a short period of time (less than 2 hours) uncontrollably, eating until they are uncomfortably full. The weight is usually above average or overweight, and sufferers tend to have a more difficult time losing weight and maintaining average healthy weights.
Binge Eating Con’t The binge eating occurs, on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors (eg, purging, fasting, excessive exercise) and does not occur exclusively during the course of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.
Reasons For Binge Eating Compulsive Overeating Using Binges as a way to hide from their emotions To fill a void they feel inside To cope with daily stresses and problems in their lives.
Health Risks For Binge Eaters Heart attack High blood-pressure High cholesterol Kidney disease and/or failure, Arthritis Bone deterioration Stroke
Recurrent Episodes of Binge Eating An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following: Eating, in a discrete period of time (eg, within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat in a similar period of time under similar circumstances A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating).
Binge eating episodes are associated with three of the following: Eating much more rapidly than normal Eating until feeling uncomfortably full Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry Eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or feeling very guilty after overeating
Anorexia Nervosa This Eating Disorder is a unique reaction to a variety of external and internal conflicts, such as stress, anxiety, unhappiness and feeling like life is out of control. Anorexia is a negative way to cope with these emotions.
Behavioral Signs Obsessive exercise Calorie and fat gram counting Starvation and restriction of food Self-induced vomiting The use of diet pills, laxatives or diuretics to attempt controlling weight A persistent concern with body image
Other Signs…….. The inherent trait of a person suffering Anorexia is to attempt to maintain strict control over food intake. Are sometimes known to eat junk food, particularly candy, to drink a lot of coffee or tea, and/or to smoke. They may deny hunger, make excuses to avoid eating, will often hide food they claim to have eaten, use diet pills to control appetite, or attempt to purge the food away with self-induced vomiting, or by taking laxatives. use diet pills to control appetitetaking laxatives
Bulimia Bulimia is characterized by a cycle of binge eating followed by purging to try and rid the body of unwanted calories. Are usually people that do not feel secure about their own self worth They do realize they have a problem and are more likely to seek help.
Signs and Symptoms Binge eating Secretive eating (food missing) Bathroom visits after eating Vomiting Laxative, diet pill or diuretic abuse Weight fluctuations (usually with 10- 15 lb range) Harsh exercise regimes Fasting
Physical/Medical Complications Fatigue and lack of energy Amenorrhea(loss of menstruation) and irregular menstruation Dizziness Headaches Dehydration Constipation and diarrhea Shortness of breath Irregular heartbeats
Physical/Medical Complications Con’t……. Depression Tears of esophagus Hair loss Stomach pain and bloating Erosion of teeth enamel Chronic sore throat Kidney and liver damage Cardiac arrest and death