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Phragmites from Greek, fencing in from Greek, fencing in.

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Presentation on theme: "Phragmites from Greek, fencing in from Greek, fencing in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phragmites from Greek, fencing in from Greek, fencing in

2 Agenda Background info Background info Some considerations Some considerations Suggested test plot Suggested test plot Discussion Discussion

3 Phragmites The plant can tolerate standing water, low oxygen levels and acidic sediments, which allow it to thrive in disturbed habitats often unsuitable for other plants (Marks et al. 1994; Bart and Hartman 2000). The plant can tolerate standing water, low oxygen levels and acidic sediments, which allow it to thrive in disturbed habitats often unsuitable for other plants (Marks et al. 1994; Bart and Hartman 2000). At the scale of the entire Rhode River subestuary, P. australis coverage expanded from 7,294 m2 in 1971–72 to 183,369 m2 in 2007 et al, Whigham et al, Wetlands (2010) 30:67–74

4 Phragmites con’t. Phragmites is often encouraged by, and a symptom of, underlying problems, such as siltation, nutrient loading, and hydrological alteration. Erik Kiviat The most common means of spread is from fragments of rhizomes that are carried on road maintenance equipment. The most common means of spread is from fragments of rhizomes that are carried on road maintenance equipment.

5 Pros Native species exist Native species exist –Less aggressive –Rare on Western shore –Can detect after spraying Green Green –Some value in cover/erosion –Used by some animal species

6 Cons Monoculture Monoculture Less diverse habitat Less diverse habitat Invasive Invasive Literally unsightly Literally unsightly Every area started as a patch Every area started as a patch Prevents recovery, even as conditions improve Prevents recovery, even as conditions improve Climate change Climate change Event- fire, spill on 97 or 50 Event- fire, spill on 97 or 50

7 Encourage by Soil disturbance Soil disturbance –Direct –Indirect via storm water runoff Nutrients in water Nutrients in water

8 Doing it Variety of approaches Variety of approaches Reports Reports Suggestions Suggestions

9 Equipment Large tank sprayers Large tank sprayers –Plants up to 12 foot height –Road access. Possibly boat. Backpack sprayers Backpack sprayers Planes Planes –Aerial control is restricted

10 Spraying Still need to mow or cut or burn Still need to mow or cut or burn Must return the following year Must return the following year

11 Bind, Cut and Paint Twine, shears, brush Twine, shears, brush Gloves Gloves Body suit? Body suit?

12 Phragmites_workshop_meeting_ minutes.doc Bundle, cut and chemically treat – Ryan Magana, DNR Bundle, cut and chemically treat – Ryan Magana, DNR (handout) (handout) Easy to do, cheap labor force, apply chemical to cut surface, Easy to do, cheap labor force, apply chemical to cut surface, Tried Rodeo first but had to return for multi treatment then moved to Habitat which works better with impressive results Tried Rodeo first but had to return for multi treatment then moved to Habitat which works better with impressive results Track what you treat due to bundles marking where treated Track what you treat due to bundles marking where treated Tops let lay, cut in August before seeds. Tops let lay, cut in August before seeds. Does not work for large areas, largest area is size of room (6 people, with thick areas, 4 hours) can pre bundle and leave for days for cutting and herbicide later Does not work for large areas, largest area is size of room (6 people, with thick areas, 4 hours) can pre bundle and leave for days for cutting and herbicide later As long as you can see green when you cut the herbicide will be effective, light frost is not a bad thing, above 28 degrees, denser the stand the better since roots are connected, seed viability is a concern As long as you can see green when you cut the herbicide will be effective, light frost is not a bad thing, above 28 degrees, denser the stand the better since roots are connected, seed viability is a concern Regrowth of native species – depends on “mulch” and density of phramities Regrowth of native species – depends on “mulch” and density of phramities Shade provided aphides promoted wasps which can be an issue with humans Shade provided aphides promoted wasps which can be an issue with humans Add dye to the bottle to make where you have been, use an herbicide dye not a food dye, use a water soluble dye for habitat or rodeo, tablets work well for land owners but for large scale work use the liquid highlight blue Add dye to the bottle to make where you have been, use an herbicide dye not a food dye, use a water soluble dye for habitat or rodeo, tablets work well for land owners but for large scale work use the liquid highlight blue

13 U. Of Wisconsin/ DNR What is the optimal timing for cut stem treatment of phragmites? – late summer to early September (we focused our treatment work after Labor Day). For the bundle and cut method, the phragmites need to be tall enough to be bundled by volunteers at a comfortable height – usually around waist height. Other types of spraying can be done in June prior to it the phragmites growing taller. What is the average rate you paid per hour for spot treatment by a contractor? We utilized around 30 hours of spot treatment by contractors, and depending on contractor (and travel costs) the average costs was $40 per hour. – –MDA quoted $150/hr for 2 people and truck, no herbicide. How short do you cut the bundles using the bundle/cut method? We use a comfortable height for the person bundling and cutting or usually around waist high. The tops are laid down on the grown. We are not concerned about removing the seeds from the area.

14 Rodeo, Habitat, Clear cast Ridges Sanctuary - Work on the Native phragmites was started due to increase in spread of native variety since 1960’s. Observations show that native phragmites is spreading and affecting endangered species. Work also focused on controlling the non-native variety as it spread. Majority of the treatment was done by the cut and bundle treatment. The bundling was done by volunteers and herbicide applied by DNR crews. Used all three types of herbicide, Rodeo and Habitat but currently using Clear cast. Clear cast is a new herbicide being developed for aquatic work. First year treatment bundled 2000 stems, following year 30 stems were needed to be treated. Large number of volunteers were needed to bundle the stems. Follow up treatment is required after first major treatment. If not retreated can re-infest the area and spread rapidly. Herbicide damage seen the second year to native vegetation but can rebound with lack of Phragmites. Issue: Aphids were thick on the canes and volunteers’ hands turned green. Wasps were attracted to the aphids and stinging caused an allergic reaction in a volunteer. Moonlight Bay - Shoreline habitat work due to spread of phragmites in exposed lake bed. Seeds washed in along shoreline increasing the spread of phragmites. Used backpack sprayers to treat 1st and 2nd year clones which is more manageable than cut and bundle. 3rd year the clone will be thicker and more difficult to treat. North Bay

15 Clear Cast- from Univ. of Wisconsin Workshop 2008 Aquatic invasive Herbicide concentrations: 32 oz per acre – mentioned in early presentation 48 and 64 oz per acre historically control treatment Need to factor in northern climate, residual effect, longer native rebound time Clear Cast – new herbicide in development, well suited for aquatic use, hoping to hear in spring Wisconsin has assisted with testing sites. Activity on submerged weeds and surface weeds. Less broad spectrum and shorter soil half life. Can go over top of hardwoods with little effect. Use rates 32 – 64 oz, Hope to have product available by fall to customers. Herbicide is affected by weather, habitat, temperature, species types, species age, density, Surfactants – never skimp on them, MSO is recommended. Hardwater – habitat is not affected by hardwater, glysophas does have issues with hard water, talk with agricultural agent. Cost of clear cast - $175 per gallon with use rates at 2 quart per acre. Note – price movement on glysophas prices increasing

16 Suggested guidelines Accessibility Accessibility Small patches, get it early in the process Small patches, get it early in the process Healthy surrounding habitat Healthy surrounding habitat –Replacement –Less likely to reoccur –Edges of large patches? In conjunction with SW restoration In conjunction with SW restoration

17 Discussion: Consolidate info to add to web site. Consolidate info to add to web site. –Enable communities to access info, resources, permits, etc. Determine the number and size of direct activities to remove phragmites Determine the number and size of direct activities to remove phragmites –Number of SW restorations –Other considerations (patch size, stage, ?) Encourage communities/scouts to control Encourage communities/scouts to control

18 A few links: Phragmites - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Phragmites - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Phragmites - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Phragmites - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Invasive Species In The Chesapeake Bay Watershed Workshop - Phragmites Invasive Species In The Chesapeake Bay Watershed Workshop - Phragmites Invasive Species In The Chesapeake Bay Watershed Workshop - Phragmites Invasive Species In The Chesapeake Bay Watershed Workshop - Phragmites issg Database: Ecology of Phragmites australis issg Database: Ecology of Phragmites australis issg Database: Ecology of Phragmites australis issg Database: Ecology of Phragmites australis

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