Presentation on theme: "Barbie—Manufactured by Mattel, Designed by Evolution Miller, A.S. & Kanazawa, S. (2007). Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping,"— Presentation transcript:
Barbie—Manufactured by Mattel, Designed by Evolution Miller, A.S. & Kanazawa, S. (2007). Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping, and Praying to Going to War and Becoming a Billionaire—Two Evolutionary Psychologists Explain Why We Do What We Do. New York City: NY: Perigee Inc. Summary of Chapter 3: Barbie- Manufactured by Mattel, Designed by Evolution (pg 46-71) Presented by: Aubrey Bowermaster Jaclyn Torres Jessica Hyman Malia Prietto
The Evolutionary Psychology of Sex and Mating A study conducted in the mid-1980s surveyed over ten thousand people from 37 cultures throughout the world Found that men everywhere want the same thing in women, and women everywhere want the same thing in men These findings were consistent despite differences in culture, language, religion, race, or geography Concluded that one’s preferences for an ideal mate are strongly shaped by the forces of evolution
Why Do Men Like Blonde Bombshells (and Why Do Women Want to Look Like Them)? Men are interested in selecting healthy women to be the mothers of their children. Men prefer young women because youth is an indicator of fertility, reproductive value, and overall good health. Because hair tends to darken as one ages, blonde hair is associated with youth and therefore good health. This helps explain why men tend to prefer women with blonde hair. Additionally, the condition of one’s hair is a good sign of their general health. A woman with long, shiny hair is thought of to be young and healthy.
Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Why 36-24-36 is considered the ideal female measurements. A study conducted by Devondra Singh demonstrated that men have a universal preference for women with a low waist-to- hip ratio. A low waist-to-hip ratio can indicate health and fertility. During ovulation the waist-to-hip ratio becomes smaller, signally to the man that the woman is fertile. Additionally, a woman with a low waist-to- hip ratio cannot be pregnant with another man’s child. This can contribute to the explanation of the popularity of corsets as well as the more recent trend of wearing midriff-baring shirts. http://youtube.com/watch? v=S8e1RjKcFKc http://youtube.com/watch? v=S8e1RjKcFKc
Why Do Men Prefer Large Breasts? Breast size does not affect a woman’s ability to lactate. So why do men prefer women with large breasts? There are two competing hypotheses… 1.Frank Marlowe proposed that larger, heavier breasts sag more conspicuously with age than do smaller breasts. Thus it is easier for men to judge a woman’s age (and her reproductive value) by sight if she has large breasts. 2.A study of Polish women showed that women who simultaneously have large breasts and a tight waist have the greatest fecundity (the ability to conceive), which is indicated by their levels of reproductive hormones.
Blue Eyes Blue eyes are thought to be attractive for both men and women. Lee Anne Turney, an undergrad student, proposed an explanation in a term paper. She pointed out that human pupils dilate when an individual is exposed to something that he or she likes. Therefore pupil dilation can be used as an indicator of attraction. Since pupils are dark brown, dilation is much easier to observe in blue eyes than darker ones. Thus blue-eyed people are considered attractive as potential mates because it is easier to determine whether they are interested in us or not. This also adds to the belief that brown eyes are thought of as mysterious.
Modern Men In today’s world such things as plastic surgery and hair dye can fool men. Men’s brains cannot comprehend such things because they did not exist in the ancestral environment ten thousand years ago. Men understand that many blonde women aren’t in the prime of their youth, but they are still attracted to them because their evolved psychological mechanisms are tricked.
Modern Men and Pornography Watching pornography does not actually lead to sexual intercourse, but the Savanna Principle suggests that men’s brains do not really understand that. They believe that they might actually have sex with these women. Men cannot cognitively understand the difference between visual stimulus and reality. If they could distinguish a difference, men would not get aroused while watching porn.
Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder? The standards of beauty are universal. They are consistent across individuals within a single culture and across all cultures. Standards of beauty are also innate, they are not learned. A study in the mid-1980s showed that infants gazed longer at faces that adults judged as attractive than those judged as unattractive. Three features that characterize physically attractive faces are: bilateral symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics. Beauty seems to be an indicator of developmental and genetic health.
Critique 3 Informative Points: 1. Males inability to distinguish between a real sexual encounter and pornography 2. Baby studies reveal an innate disposition toward attractive faces 3. Blue eyes are attractive for both men and women
Critique Females baring their midriffs advertise their ability to conceive Not enough empirical evidence to support this claim Breasts and waist attractiveness as a result of fertility hormones What about hands, face shape, etc Other things that could be related to fertility hormones were not universally attractive There was not enough empirical evidence to support the blonde bombshell theory “agreed broadly” is not specific enough Would every culture choose the blonde bombshell?
Questions 1. What eye color is the dilation of the pupil seen the easiest? A. Brown B. Green C. Blue D. Hazel 2. Men are turned on by pornography because A. They don’t have enough fantasies. B. Their minds cannot tell the difference between a fake and a real opportunity for mating. C. They want to make their mate jealous. D. A and C 3. What features characterize physically attractive faces? A. Bilateral symmetry B. Averageness C. Secondary sexual characteristics D. All of the above
True/False 1.The condition of one’s hair is a good indicator of their health. 2.Men prefer women with large waists and small hips. 3.Large breast size is desired by men because it represents the ability to lactate.