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Body Composition and Weight Control Labette Community College PE 116.

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1 Body Composition and Weight Control Labette Community College PE 116

2 Definitions Body composition: Proportion of fat, muscle, bone, and other tissues in the body Essential fat: Minimum amount of body fat needed for good health Storage fat: Fat deposited in adipose tissue (fat cells) that protects organs and insulates body

3 Desirable Amounts of Essential Fat Adult women: 3% to 4% of total body weight Adult men: 3% to 4% of total body weight Sex Specific Fat: 10% women only (13-14%)

4 Determining Healthy Body Composition Assessing body weight –Bathroom scale –Height weight table –Body mass index (BMI) –Anthropometric tape measure Waist- Hip Ratio Military ?

5 Height – Weight Table

6 Determining Healthy Body Composition & BW Assessing body fatness (FW vs LBW) –Skinfold measurements “pinch technique” –BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) –Hydrostatic underwater weight (research) –Air displacement (Bod Pod) –Infrared Interactance (light absorption) –“La’ Mirror” Test (France)

7 Body Mass Index (BMI) Divide weight in pounds by square of height in inches, multiplied by 703 or… Look at a BMI table Health Criterions –under 18.5 = underweight –18.5 to 24.9 = normal or healthy!!! –25 to 29.9 = overweight  –30 and above = obese   –40+ = morbidly obese   


9 Desirable Ranges for % Body Fat – Young Adults Adult women: 19 to 29% of total body weight Adult men: 10 to19% of total body weight Experts disagree… ? ? ?

10 Sample “Expert” Opinions MenWomen CDC18-25%25-31% AMA13-17%20-27% Surgeon General11-22%23-34% World Health Organ8-19%21-33% ACSM12-19%19-26% Ken Cooper15-19%18-22% RANGES 8-25%18-34% * Cooper Institute for Aerobic Research

11 Risk of Chronic Disease CHD & Morbidity Adult women exceeding 30-32% of total body weight (45%=Morbidly Obese) Adult men exceeding 20-22% of total body weight (35%=Morbidly Obese) “1/8 American deaths caused by an illness directly related to overweight or obesity” Surgeon General

12 Waist-to-Hip Ratio or Body Fat Distribution Waist circumference (inches) divided by hip circumference (inches) = waist-to-hip ratio Standard ratios –Women: No more than 0.80 –Men: Less than 0.95 * Waist size alone W<35”/M<40”

13 Body Fat Distribution and Health Men build up belly fat or excess central located visceral fat - “apples”  Women collect fat in hips and buttocks or gluteal-femoral fat – “pears” * Pears are healthier than Apples!!!!! * Apples can lose weight easier than pears. Why?

14 Race & Childhood Obesity 18% Hispanic - 14% Black - 10% White Starts w/ being overweight in pregnancy “Chubby baby is a happy baby” MYTH –Less breast feeding/earlier solid food Continues overweight at birth… leads to overweight/obesity by pre-school Prime causes: >TV/Screen Time >Soda/Sugar >Junk Food

15 Health Risks of Too Much Body Fat Premature death CHD/Stroke Blood Pressure Diabetes Cancer Respiratory problems Arthritis/Orthopedic

16 Maintaining a Healthy Body Composition and Body Weight

17 Definitions Calorie: Unit of energy supplied by food - commonly called a KCAL Basal metabolic rate (BMR): Energy consumed (measured in calories) by body at rest to keep vital functions going BMR = 70% of daily KCAL expendature

18 Obesity - #2 Cause of Preventable Death Over 60% of U.S. adults are either overweight or obese… –Overweight = BMI of 25 to 29.9 –Obese = BMI of 30 or more *2009- First time more Americans are obese 34% than overweight 33%

19 Caloric Balance Equation Simply Kcals In vs Kcals Out Caloric Balance Equation Simply Kcals In vs Kcals Out Weight gain = calories consumed > calories used (+ balance) Weight loss = calories consumed < calories used (- balance) No weight change = calories consumed equals calories used (homeostasis)

20 Early Theories About Weight Gain Fat cell theory (hyperplasia) - fat when young = increase # cells Set point theory Glandular disorder theory

21 Current Theories Genetics- 25% Sedentary/Inactive Lifestyle Gluttony/Fatty-Caloric Dense foods Emotional Disorders >food & drink Socioeconomic $$$, age/BMR, and gender factors Cultural factors Smoking cessation

22 First Steps for Weight Management Do body composition assessment Set realistic weight loss goal Keep a food diary Increase daily activity! Make activity a habit! Make activity social & FUN!

23 Desirable Body Weight Body Weight x % Fat = _____ lbs FW Body Weight – FW = ____ lbs LBW * Locate a calculator Divide LBW / 1.00 – new desireable % fat ex. 200 lbs x 20% = ??? FW 200 lbs – ??? = ??? LBW LBW/.85 (for 15%) becomes… 160/.85 = 188 lbs at 15%

24 Weight Management Tips Increase Physical Activity & Exercise * ALL adults should take three ___ min walks/day* Eat fewer calories and/or healthier calories Cut back on simple sugars Eat lean protein Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables Eat high-fiber grains and legumes Include small amounts of healthful fats (olive oil, nuts, fatty fish)

25 WOMEN'S TRADITIONAL vs NEW MODERNIZED BODY MEASUREMENTS??? S M L XL 2XL Bust 33½" 34½" 35½" 36½" 38" 39½" 41" 43" 45" Waist 25½" 26½" 27½" 28½" 30" 31½" 33" 35" 37" Hip 35½" 36½" 37½" 38½" 40" 41½" 43" 45" 47” * An Important Word About Our New Women’s Fit & Size Chart. At Woolrich, we constantly strive to improve our products. Thanks to your feedback, we realized the fit of our Women’s clothing needed tweaking—nothing dramatic, but a better, more generous comfort-fit. We have also changed our sizing chart. WOMEN'S BODY MEASUREMENTS - FALL NEW! XS S M L XL Bust 34" 35" 36" 37" 38½" 40" 41½" 43½” 45" Waist ½-32½ ½-38½ 40-41" Hip 38" 38½" 39" 40" 41" 42½" 44” 45½” 47"


27 Prevention of Obesity Reducing sodas and juices with added sugars. Reducing energy/nutrient dense foods containing added sugars or solid fats. Eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Controlling portions / drinking more water. Choosing low-fat or non-fat dairy products. Limiting television viewing time and consider keeping televisions out of children’s rooms. Being more physically active throughout the day. Breastfeeding exclusively to 6 months. CDC

28 Major Conclusions 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity on 5 days of the week provides substantial health benefits and is sufficient to prevent weight gain in some people Some individuals need more than 30 minutes/day to prevent weight gain (also some can get by with less) Prevention of weight regain in formerly obese persons may require up to 90 minutes of activity/day Get up/move! ! ____3 X week for ___ mins

29 Body Comp./ Weight Control American Heart Association- Body Composition calculator and risk factors American Heart Association Weight Management- Management/Weight- Management_UCM_001081_SubHomePage.jsp Management/Weight- Management_UCM_001081_SubHomePage.jsp Weight Loss and Nutrition Myths-

30 Attendance ???’s * Partner Quiz… find a friend and… #1- The #2 cause of preventable death in America is …? #2- More Americans are now obese or overweight? #3- All Adults need to walk for ?? minutes per day? **** Homework- bring a copy of the Obesity Video Questions on ANGEL to our next class to use during the video.

31 Final Exam Study Questions 1- The type of body fat found only on females is their 3-4% ____-_______ fat. 2- A normal or healthy MBI is ____, overweight is __ & morbidy obese is __? 3- Apples are more at risk than a Pear due to their excess centrally located _____ fat. 4- Genetics… “how well we picked our parents” … accounts for only about ____% of our adulthood body composition? 5- Your healthy desireable body weight should be based upon your ???????????

32 Web Sites - References The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation Center for Disease Control American Medical Association ChooseMyPlate from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)ChooseMyPlate from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Healthy Weight from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Healthy Weight from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Small Step from the U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesSmall Step from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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