Presentation on theme: "Therapy and Sports Medicine Chapter"— Presentation transcript:
1Therapy and Sports Medicine Chapter Apply therapeutic skills for rehabilitation and injury prevention
2Demonstrate Assistive and Therapeutic Techniques Range of motionWhen patients have limited movement range of motion exercise help keep muscles and joints functioningAn example of a psychological benefit of massage therapy is relaxation
3Range of Motion ROM Ordering by physician, Administered by physical therapist, nurse assistant or other authorized personDone during daily bath or at other times.Using massage on strained muscle can help increase circulation
4ROM is done to avoidContractures (tightening/shortening of muscle causing permanent flexing of joint, for example foot drop)ROM exercise are done to prevent contracturesMuscle atrophy or stiff jointsCirculatory impairment (leading to blood clots or decubitius ulcersMineral lossOther problems, poor appetite, constipation, urinary infections, respiratory problems, and hypostatic pneumonia.
5Active ROMActive ROM-Performed by patients who are able to move each joint without assistance.The term that describes the ROM movement when a straight leg is bent at the knee is flexion.
6Passive ROMAnother person moves each joint for a patient who is not able to exercise.If a person has a cast on their wrist, the motion that can still be done to the wrist and hand is rotation.
7Resistive ROMPerformed by a therapist against resistance provided by the therapistThe training a certified athletic trainer must have a bachelor’s degree.The medical practice that would use a massage therapist as an associate is an orthopedics office.
9Principles for Performing ROM Movements should be done slow, smooth, and gentle to prevent injurySupport should be provided to the parts above and below the joint being exercisedNever force joint beyond range or to the point of painIf patient complains of pain, stop exercise and report it to the supervisor
10Repeat three times or as ordered Encourage patient to assist as much as possiblePrevent unnecessary exposure of patientClose door, provide privacyUse correct body mechanics at all times
11Principles of Ambulatory Assistance Crutches-Usually prescribed by physician Therapist or authorized person fits crutchesAppropriate gait must be taughtMust be properly fit (axillary pressure can cause damage to radial nerve).When ambulating a pt. with crutches, be sure: the pat supports his/her weight on the hand bars and not the axillary support.
12When fitting crutches: Patient should wear good fitting walking shoes with low, broad heelsIf possible, position patient against wall for support (use chair for additional support)Position crutches 4-6” in front and 4-6” to the side of patient’s footAllow 2” space between armpit and axillary bar.Adjust hand pieces so that each elbow is flexed at angle.
13Crutches Gait taught depends upon condition Patients must be taught to support weight on hand bars, NOT axillary supports
14Cane Provides balance and support Some have 3 or 4 legs for additional supportUsed on unaffected (good) side
15WalkerWhen helping a client’s who is recovering from a stroke the nurse aide should assist on the clients weak side.4 legged deviceOften used for weak patients without leg injuriesMust be properly fitted to the pt.Patient must lift walker, place it in front of the body, and walk into itPatients must NOT slide walker
16Gait Belt Band of fabric or leather around patient’s waist During transfers or ambulation, health care workers can hold gait belt to provide additional supportGait belt must be the proper size-secure fit around waist but not too tightBelt may have loop to hold, or use an underhand grasp to hold belowGrasp belt at the back during ambulationGrasp the belt on both sides while facing the patientApply gait belt over the patient's clothing at the waist
17Safety Checks Remain alert when ambulating patient Walk on weak side and slightly behind patientIf the patient starts to fall, use your body to brace the patientEase the patient to the floor as slowly as possibleProtect the patient’s head and neckStay with the patient and call for helpIf a patient falls, an incident report must be filled out in most agencies
18Massage A traditional backrub uses primarily friction. The massage technique involving making fine, tremulous movement with the fingers or the use of a mechanical device is vibration.During childbirth the massage technique that is used when light, circular strokes over the lower abdomen done during controlled breathing is called Effleurage.During a massage you should encourage the pt. to understand the potential source of healing in his/her own consciousness.
19Taping an ankle…When taping an ankle under wrap is used to protect the skin.When taping an ankle, the first piece of tape to go on is a single strip of tape around the ankle, approximately 5 or 6 inches above the malleous. The strip of tape is called an anchor.
20Test Your Gray MatterWhen you are ambulating a pt. with a gait belt, how should you hold the gait belt?When ambulating pt. with crutches, be sure:You go into a pt.’s room and note that the humidifier attached to the oxygen is empty. What should you do?What statement about the walker is true?Sheena has a cast on her wrist. What motion can she still do with her lower arm, wrist and hand?A physician wishes to treat a pts. Hemorrhoids with moist heat. Which of the following applications might be ordered?What term describes the ROM movement when a straight leg is bent at the knee?A pt. has shallow respirations, rapid pulse, restlessness, and cyanosis. The physician will likely order?The pt. supports his/her weight on the hand bars and not the axillary supportThe walker should be properly fitted to the pt.Hold the back of the belt using an underhand grasp.Notify your supervisor immediatelyFlexionSitz bathOxygen