3FunctionSupportThe pelvis and associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the ribs, costal cartilages, and the intercostal muscles the lungs would collapse.MovementThe joints between bones permit movement. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton.ProtectionThe skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears.The vertebrae protect the spinal cord.The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels.The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder.The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip.
4Function Blood cell production The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, which takes place in red bone marrow. Marrow is found in the center of long bones.StorageBone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism.Endocrine regulationBone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to mineralization, development of teeth and bones, and increases the adrenalin level [the regulation of glucose and fat deposition].
5Endosketeleton dynamic structure every week there is a recycling Collagen structure with inorganic matter predominantly hydroxyapatit (Ca5(PO4)3OH)every week there is a recyclingfor up to 5% of bone mattercontinuous remodeling throughout the life resides primarily with three cells:osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast.ChordatesImportant components is cartilage, predominantly located in joints [mammals]chondroichtian animals [Chondrichthyes: sharks, sting rays ] have the whole system is composed from cartilage [chondrocytes and proteoglycan].5
6Osteoblasts synthesize and regulate the deposition and mineralization of the extracellular matrix of boneOsteocytes are formed by the incorporation of osteoblasts into the bone matrix. Osteocytes are highly differentiated cells. Osteocytes do not play a role in calcium homeostasisOsteoclasts are multinucleated cells of hemopoietic origin involved in bone resorption.
7ventral (anterior) dorsal (posterior) MeaningFrontal or Coronal PlaneDivides the front and back halves of the entire body.Median or Sagittal PlaneDivides the left and right sides of the entire body.Transverse or Axial PlaneDivides the body at the waist (top and bottom halves of the body).ventral (anterior) dorsal (posterior)lateral medial proximal distalProximal/ blizici se trupu, smerujici do stredu telaDistal dal od stredu tela
8Human skeletonconsists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, anchoring muscles and cartilage.Skeleton of adult human consists of 206 bonesNew-born children have about 300 bones [grow together].Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium.The development of whole skeleton is accomplished in the age of 20 years.Adult age, adulthood8
9- long bones and most other bones gradually form in endochondral ossification flat bones of the skull and the clavicles are formed from connective tissue in a process known as intramembranous ossification- hyoid bone- three bones in each middle ear - auditory ossicles, transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea)11 inches (.28 cm)
12Joints Joint‘s types Sutures – concrestion - fibrous joint only in the scullThe term "fontanelle" is used to describethe resulting "soft spots".Articulation – attachment two or morebones make a contact
13Functional classification fibrous joint - synarthrosis - connects bones without allowing any movement - bones of your skull and pelvis- cartilaginous joint - amphiarthrosis - These joints allow for only a little movement, such as in the spine (vertebrae) or ribs.synovial joint - diarthrosis - Cavities between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bonespermits a variety of movements (e.g., shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, etc.).
14shapes of jointsBall and Socket the distal bone is capable of motion around an indefinite number of axes, which have one common center. It enables the bone to move in a 360° angle. They are found in the hips and shoulders.2. Condyloid joint - the wrist-joint, metacarpophalangeal joints, metatarsophalangeal joints3. SaddleThe movements are a the same as in a condyloid joint: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction are allowed; but no axial rotation. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
154. Hinge elbow, only motion in one plane, backward and forward 5. PivotPivot joints are found in humans in the neck, forearms, knees, and other parts of the skeletal system that are able to rotate.A pivot joint is composed of a bone and ligament ring rotating around another bone.
17Vertebra Vertebral Body: The largest part of a vertebra. Pedicles: are two short processes.Laminae: Two relatively flat plates of bone that extend fromthe pedicles on either side and join in the midline.Processes: There are three typesof processes: articular, transverseand spinous.The processes serve as connectionpoints for ligaments and tendons.Vertebra
18is a common condition of a curvature of the upper lordosis – an inward curvature of a part of the vertebral column - cervical and lumbar segments, are normally lordotickyphosis – also calledhunchback,is a common condition ofa curvature of the upperspine thoracic and coccygealcurvature
19Ribcage Th 1-12 7 pairs „true ribs“ attached to sternum „false ribs“: 3 pairs attached to common cartilaginous connection to the sternum2 pairs free
24Leg1. Tibia (shinbone) connected to the femur form the knee joint and allow the ankle to flex and extend2. Fibula serves as an area formuscle attachmentPatella (kneecap) is a large, triangular sesamoid bone, it is formed in response to the strain in the tendon24
25Foot contains 26 bones of the ankle, instep, and the five toes the ankle is composed of the 7 tarsal bonesthe five metatarsal bonesthe 14 phalanges of the foot,are arranged in a proximal row,a middle row,and a distal row,with the big toe,or hallux
26Cranial and Facial bones 8 plate-like bones form the human cranium by fitting together at joints called sutures.The human skull also includes 14 facial bonesThe important facial bones includethe jaw bone or mandible,the maxilla or upper jaw,the zygomatic or cheek bone, and the nasal bone.
28Cranial and Facial bones zygomatic bone - cheeknasal bone - noselacrimal bone - inner corner of eye socketmaxilla - upper part of jawmandible or jaw bone - lower part of jawvolmer - nasal cavityethmoid bone - eye cavityfrontal bone - top of face (forehead) and front top of headparietal bone - the lower rear of the headoccipital bone - top and side of headsphenoid bone - temple and eye orbit areatemporal bone - side of the head, above the ear
29Most known diseases Osteoporosis Fractures Osteogenesis imperfecta HormonesVitamin D - absorption of calcium and phosphorus from food in the intestines, and reabsorption of calcium in the kidneysParathormon is secreted by the parathyroid glandsIt acts to increase the concentration of calcium (Ca2+) in the bloodCalcitonin (a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland) acts to decrease calcium concentration.Most known diseasesOsteoporosisFracturesOsteogenesis imperfectaAchondroplasie
31Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments Muscle contractions require energyBlood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to produce ATPMuscle contractions are under stimulation from the CNSVoluntary controlAxons connect to individual muscle fibers
32Myofibril from sarcomeres Actin, Myosin Muscle with fasciaTendonbundle of fibersFiberMyofibril from sarcomeresActin, Myosinactin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments, associated proteinsinto myofibrilsregular repeating segments = sacromeres transverse striations - skeletal and cardiacTerminate, organization
33Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Specialized form of ERT – tubules for extensionof depolarizationCisternae – expandedchambers of SR, storeCalciumLine up
34Functions of Skeletal Muscle Movement: muscle pulls tendons to move the skeletonControl swallowing, defecation and urinationMaintain postureStabilize jointsGenerate HeatMuscle Fibers are connected to connective tissue attachmentTendon – cord-like structureAponeurosis — sheet-like structureProperties of MuscleIrritability – ability to receive and respond to a stimulusContractibility – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is receivedExtensibility – ability to stretch when an adequate stimulus is receivedElasticity – ability to return to normal shape
35- Classification - relative to the Midline RECTUS = parallel to the midlineRectus AbdominusTRANSVERSE = perpendicular to midlineTransverse AbdominusOBLIQUE = diagonal to midlineExternal Oblique
36Classification - relative to structure near which muscle is found FRONTALIS = near FRONTAL boneOCCIPITALIS = near OCCIPITAL bone
37Classification - relative to size of muscle MAXIMUS = largest Gluteus MaximusMEDIUS = middleGluteus MediusMINIMUS = smallestGluteus MinimusLONGUS = longestFibularis LongusBREVIS = shortFibularis BrevisTERTIUS = shortestFibularis Tertius
38Classification - relative to number of tendons of origin BICEPS = TwoBiceps BrachiiBiceps FemorisTRICEPS = ThreeTriceps BrachiiQUADRICEPS = FourQuadriceps Femoris
39Classification - relative to shape of the muscle DELTOID = triangular shape ΔTRAPEZIUS = trapezoid shape SERRATUS = saw-toothed ♒RHOMBOIDEUS = rhomboid shape TERES = round ○
40Classification - relative to origin ILIO COSTALIS= attaches to the ilium & ribs (costal = ribs)
41Classification – related to function NAMEACTIONEXAMPLEFLEXORDecrease angle at a jointFlexor Carpi RadialisEXTENSORIncrease angle at a jointExtensor Carpi UlnarisABDUCTORMove bone away from midlineAbductor Pollicis LongusADDUCTORMove bone toward midlineAdductor LongusLEVATORProduce upward movementLevator ScapulaeDEPRESSORProduce downward movementDepressor Labii InferiorisSUPINATORTurn palm upward/anteriorSupinatorPRONATORTurn palm downward/posteriorPronator Teres
46Thank you for your attention Campbell, Neil A., Reece, Jane B., Cain Michael L., Jackson, Robert B., Minorsky, Peter V., Biology, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, 1996 –2010.
47Neuro-muscular junction Action potential originating in the CNSMotor neuronActivation sodium dependent channels along the axon toward the synaptic cleftA calcium ion influx through the calcium-dependent channelsVesicles with acetylcholine fuse with the plasma membraneBinds to and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptorsActivation opens sodium/potassium channel, the muscle fiber membrane becomes more positively charged, triggering an action potential47