Presentation on theme: "Injection of CCK into the Waist Area of the Parabrachial Nucleus Increases Taste Reactivity to Intra-Oral Infusion of Quinine in Rats Michael S. King 1,"— Presentation transcript:
Injection of CCK into the Waist Area of the Parabrachial Nucleus Increases Taste Reactivity to Intra-Oral Infusion of Quinine in Rats Michael S. King 1, Joseph A. Delmond 1 and Lance C. Maddox 2 1 Biology Department, Stetson University, DeLand, FL 32723 2 Daytona Beach Community College, Daytona Beach, FL 32120 1. 2. GOAL To determine the role of CCK in the waist area of the PBN in taste reactivity to intra-oral infusion of tastants in conscious rats. (Norgren & Pfaffmann, ’75; Fulwiler & Saper, ’84; Halsell & Travers, ’97). INTRODUCTION PBN Structure and Function The classic taste responsive PBN area, the ‘waist’ region, includes the central medial (CM) and ventral lateral (VL) subnuclei as well as the neurons that span the brachium conjunctivum (bc) between these areas Cholecystokinin (CCK) A gut peptide that has satiety effects when injected peripherally as well as into cerebral ventricles (Gibbs et al., ’73; Zhang et al., ’86; Schick et al., ’88). Peripheral administration reduces sucrose intake in intact (Gosnell & Hsaio, ’84) and decerebrate rats (Grill & Smith, ’88). Although taste responses in NST and perceived intensity of sucrose solutions are not altered by peripheral CCK (Giza et al., ’90), ingestive responses to intra-oral infusion of sucrose are reduced (Eckel & Ossenkopp, ‘94). Some CCK-immunoreactive neurons within the NST project to the PBN (Herbert & Saper, ’90) and CCK and its receptors are present within the waist area of the PBN (Kubota et al., ’83; Block & Hoffman, ’87; Mercer & Beart, ‘97) The functional roles of CCK in the PBN are not known. METHODS Subjects: 12 male Wistar rats, ~300g (Hilltop Laboratories) Intra-PBN and Intra-oral Cannula Placement: sodium pentobarbital anesthesia (60 mg/kg, i.p.) stereotaxic device with non-traumatic ear bars (Stoelting) double guide cannula extending 5.0mm below pedestal (Plastics One) placed vertically in cerebellum dorsal to PBN (Paxinos & Watson, ‘98) intra-oral cannulas were constructed of PE-100 tubing with a teflon washer, placed anterolateral to the first maxillary molar and connected to 19g stainless steel tubing affixed to the skull with dental acrylic Intra-PBN and Intra-oral Infusions: 3 days of recovery, 2 of adaptation to the behavioral arena i nject 10mM CCK or vehicle into the PBN (400nl) on subsequent days intra-orally infuse 0.1M NaCl, 0.1M sucrose and 0.003M quinine (0.233ml/1min, with dH 2 O rinses), wait 30 min., repeat oral infusions Behavioral Analysis: oromotor behaviors were videotaped using an S-VHS system taste reactivity behaviors (mouth movements, tongue protrusions, gapes, etc) were quantified (Grill & Norgren, ’78; Spector et al., ’88) behaviors were compared using ANOVAs and T-tests Histology: animals were overdosed with sodium pentobarbital (80 mg/kg) perfused with PBS then 4% paraformaldehyde coronal sections through PBN cut on a freezing microtome sections Nissl stained with thionin to verify intra-PBN infusion site A. B. A. B. C. 3. A. B. 4. D. B. E. CCK Injections into W alter Oromotor Responses to Q C. A.CCK in W (n=5) increased the number of gapes to intra-oral infusion of quinine (Q) (*, p<0.05 CCK vs vehicle). This effect persisted for over 40 min. B.CCK in W increased the total number of ingestive behaviors and tongue protrusions to Q. This effect lasted less than 40 min. CCK Injections into W do not alter Oromotor Responses to N or S A.CCK in W (same rats as in 2) does not alter total ingestive behaviors nor tongue protrusions (TP) or mouth movements (MM) to intra-oral infusion of NaCl (N). B.CCK in W does not alter total ingestive behaviors (Total) nor tongue protrusions (TP) or mouth movements (MM) to intra-oral infusion of sucrose (S). Only Injections into W alter Oromotor Responses Location of Injections Site D. A. A. & B. CCK in W (n=5) increased gapes to Q but CCK rostral (R; n=2), dorsal (D; n- 2) or medial (M, n=3) to W did not. (*, p<0.05 compared to vehicle) C., D. & E. CCK in W increased the total ingestive behaviors and tongue protrusions to Q but injections into nearby areas did not. (*, p<0.05 compared to vehicle) (#, p<0.05 comparing W to all other groups combined). 0.5 mm 4V bc 4V bc 4V bc 4V Waist (W) AreaPBN Rostral (R) to Waist AreaDorsal (D) to PBNMedial (M) to PBN FUNDINGFUNDING NSF RUI grant IBN 0090641 and NIH RO1 DC007854 REFERENCESREFERENCES Block, C.H. and Hoffman, G.E., 1987, Neuropeptide and monoamine components of the parabrachial pontine complex. Peptides 8:267-283. Eckel, L.A. and Ossenkopp, K.-P., 1994, Cholecystokinin reduces sucrose palatability in rats: evidence in support of a satiety effect. Am. J.Physiol. 267:R1496- R1502. Fulwiler, C.E., & Saper, C.B., 1984, Subnuclear organization of the efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. Br. Res. Rev., 7, 229-259. Gibbs, J., Young, R.C. and Smith, G.P., 1973, Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 84:323-325. Giza, B.K., Scott, T.R and Antonucci, R.F., 1990, Effect of cholecystokinin on taste responsiveness in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258:R1371-R1379. Gosnell, B.A. and Hsiao, S., 1984, Effects of cholecystokinin on taste preference and sensitivity in rats. Behav. Neurosci. 98:452-460. Grill, H.J., & Norgren, R., 1978, The taste reactivity test. I. Mimetic responses to gustatory stimuli in neurologically normal rats. Br. Res., 143, 263-279. Grill, H.J. and Smith, G.P., 1988, Cholecystokinin decreases sucrose intake in chronic decerebrate rats. Am. J. Physiol. 254:R853-R856. Halsell, C.B., & Travers, S.P., 1997, Anterior and posterior oral cavity responsive neurons are differentially distributed among parabrachial subnuclei in rat. J. of Neurophys., 78, 920-938. Herbert, H. and Saper, C.B., 1990, Cholecystokinin-, galanin-, and corticotropin- releasing factor-like immunoreactive projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J. Comp. 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Spector, A.C., Breslin, P., & Grill, H.J., 1988, Taste reactivity as a dependent measure of the rapid formation of conditioned taste aversion: a tool for the neural analysis of taste-visceral associations. Behav. Neurosci., 102, 942- 952. Zhang, D.-M., Bula, W. and Stellar, D., 1986, Brain cholecystokinin as a satiety peptide. Physiol. Behav. 36:1183-1186. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION Data from this pilot study suggest that CCK in the waist area of the PBN increases oromotor responses to quinine. SUMMARY of RESULTS Injections of CCK into the waist area of the PBN increased the number of gapes, total ingestive behaviors and tongue protrusions to quinine, but not to NaCl or sucrose. Injections of CCK into the pons but outside of the waist area did not alter taste reactivity to these tastants.