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Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney

2 Learning Objectives  Delineate the health risks of too little and too much body fatness, with emphasis on central obesity and its associated health risks.  Describe the roles of BMR and several other factors in determining an individual’s daily energy needs.

3 Learning Objectives  Calculate the BMI when given height and weight information for various people, and describe the health implications of any given BMI value.  Compare and contrast the roles of the hormones ghrelin and leptin in appetite regulation, and name several other influences on both hunger and satiety.

4 Learning Objectives  Discuss the potential impact of “outside the body” factors on weight-control efforts.  Develop a weight-loss plan that includes controlled portions of nutrient-dense foods to produce gradual weight loss while meeting nutrient needs.  Discuss the role of physical activity in maintaining a healthy body composition.

5 Learning Objectives  Defend the importance of behavior modification in weight loss and weight maintenance over the long term.  Compare and contrast the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and provide strategies for combating eating disorders.

6 Introduction  Health risks  Overweight  Underweight  Weight “control”  Focus on weight  Focus on controlling weight  Focus on short-term endeavors  Body composition

7 The Problems of Too Little or Too Much Body Fat  U.S. prevalence  Underweight  Overweight  Epidemic  Children and adolescents

8 Increasing Prevalence of Obesity

9 Adult Obesity and Overweight Compared with Healthy People Target

10 Underweight, Overweight, and Mortality

11 What Are the Risks from Underweight?  Disadvantages  Siege or famine  Hospital stays  Wasting disease  Heart disease

12 What Are the Risks from Too Much Body Fat?  Obesity-related illnesses  Dying young  Obesity vs. smoking  Hypertension  Central obesity  Other risks

13 What Are the Risks from Central Obesity?  Risks of visceral fat  Subcutaneous fat  Adipokines  Regulate inflammatory processes  Central obesity causes a shift  Free fatty acids  Factors affecting fat distribution

14 Visceral Fat and Subcutaneous Fat

15 How Fat Is Too Fat?  Evaluate health risks of obesity  Body mass index (BMI)  Waist circumference  Disease risk profile  Social costs of being overfat  Economic costs of being overfat

16 Chronic Disease Risks According to BMI Values and Waist Circumference

17 Indicators of an Urgent Need for Weight Loss

18 The Body’s Energy Balance  Energy budget  Change in energy stores = energy in – energy out  Energy in  Foods and beverages  Energy out  Varies widely  Lifestyle and metabolism

19 The Body’s Energy Balance  Calorie needs  Monitor activity and weight  Energy output  Basal metabolism (BMR)  Voluntary activities  Thermic effect of food

20 Components of Energy Expenditure

21 Factors That Affect the BMR

22 The Body’s Energy Balance  Estimated energy requirements (EER)  Reference man and woman  Taller people  Need more energy  Energy need diminishes with age  DRI method  Gender, age, physical activity, body size and weight, and growth

23 Body Weight Versus Body Fatness  Body Mass Index (BMI)  Underweight  Overweight  Obesity  Risks follow racial lines  Drawbacks  Amount or location of fat  Diagnosis requirements

24 Measuring Waist Circumference

25 Measures of Body Composition and Fat Distribution  Body composition  Skin fold test  Underwater weighing  Bioelectrical impedance  Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry  Each method has advantages and disadvantages

26 Average Body Composition of Men and Women

27 Three Methods of Assessing Body Fatness

28 How Much Body Fat Is Ideal?  Healthy BMI range  Man: 12 to 20 percent  Woman: 20 to 30 percent  Declaration of being overfat  Men age 40 and younger  Men over age 40  Women age 40 and younger  Women over age 40

29 The Mystery of Obesity  Obesity’s cause remains elusive  Hunger  Satiety  Response to physiological need  Chemical messengers  Stomach hormone  Ghrelin  Stomach capacity

30 Hunger, Appetite, Satiation, and Satiety

31 The Mystery of Obesity  Appetite  Initiates eating  Endorphins  Factors affecting appetite

32 The Mystery of Obesity  “Stop” signals  Satiation  Food in digestive tract  Hormones  Hypothalamus  Satiety  Regulates frequency of meals

33 The Mystery of Obesity  Leptin  Adipokine hormone  Appetite regulation  Leptin resistance  Energy nutrients  Protein provides most satiation

34 Inside-the-Body Causes of Obesity  Metabolic theories  Variations in ease of body fat gain or loss  Variety of theories  Genetics  Influence tendency to gain weight or stay lean  Environmental factors

35 Outside-the-Body Causes of Obesity  External cues to overeating  Available foods  Human sensations  Larger portions  Physical inactivity  Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)  Inactivity epidemic  Sitting still and death from heart disease

36 Outside-the-Body Causes of Obesity  Built environment  Can discourage physical activity  Food access  Food deserts  Fast food  Attain healthy body weight  Diet  Physical activity  Behavior change

37 How the Body Loses and Gains Weight  Tissue lost or gain  Depends on what you do  Water  Fat or muscle  Smoking  Hazards

38 Moderate Weight Loss Versus Rapid Weight Loss  Gradual weight loss is preferred  Fasting  Body adjustments  Sacrifice lean tissue  Death  Ketosis  Break down of fat molecules

39 Feasting and Fasting

40 Moderate Weight Loss Versus Rapid Weight Loss  Short-term fasting  Seems to be tolerated  Effects of deprivation  Overeat or binge eating  Weight loss technique  Slowing of metabolism  Low-carbohydrate diets  DRI minimum carbohydrate intake level

41 Weight Gain  Energy-yielding nutrients contribute to body stores  Four sources of energy  Alcohol  Two types of energy stores  An excess of any food will become fat

42 Popular Fad Diets  Effectiveness  Both sides of the coin  Adequacy  To be achieved via food, not supplements  Safety  Personal responsibility

43 Achieving and Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight  Changing your body weight  What is your motivation?  Benefits of modest weight loss  Focus on health or fitness

44 Tips for Accepting a Healthy Body Weight

45 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?  Aim for a realistic target  Reasonable goals  Specific and measurable objectives  Recommended weight loss  1 to 2 pounds per week  Weight maintenance  Keep records  Plan your diet

46 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?  Realistic calorie intakes  Nutrient needs and caloric intake  Men  Women  Adequate diets  Choose sensibly  Consider a supplement  Calcium

47 Recommended Daily Food Intakes for Low-Calorie Diets

48 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?  Manage portion sizes  Reduced-calorie foods  Read labels  Calorie calculations  Little daily decisions add up  Energy density  Low energy density  May not reflect nutrient density

49 Examples of Energy Density

50 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?  Artificial sweeteners  Soft drinks and milk consumption  Meal spacing  Hunger vs. appetite  Importance of breakfast  Night eating syndrome

51 Physical Activity in Weight Loss and Maintenance  Weight loss  Physical activity alone  Weight maintenance  Appetite effects  Suppression of appetite  Heightened satiety  Other benefits  Choosing activities

52 What Strategies Are Best for Weight Gain?  Physical activity  Resistance training  High-calorie diet  Increased daily caloric intake  High energy density foods  Portion sizes and meal spacing  Avoid tobacco

53 Medical Treatment of Obesity  Obesity medications  Over-the-counter (OTC) medications  Prescription medications  Obesity surgery  Extreme obesity  Not a sure cure  Complications  Lipectomy

54 Surgical Obesity Treatments

55 Herbal Products and Gimmicks  Herbals and botanicals  Sold as ‘dietary supplements’  Lack of FDA approval  Other gimmicks  Prohibited claims  Saunas or steam baths  Cellulite

56 Once I’ve Changed by Weight, How Can I Stay Changed?  Lifelong commitment  Cultivate habits for a healthy weight  Self-efficacy and success keys  Physical activity  Weight cycling

57 Behavior Modification for Weight Control  Behavior modification  Change behavior  Change thought processes  Food and activity diary  Don’t attempt to modify all behaviors at once

58 A Sample Food and Activity Diary

59 Behavior Modification for Weight Control  Modifying behaviors  Eliminate inappropriate cues  Suppress cues  Strengthen cues  Repeat the desires behaviors  Emphasize negative consequences  Emphasize positive consequences  Establish baseline  Cognitive skills

60 The Perils of Eating Disorders Controversy 9

61 Introduction  Eating disorders  Anorexia nervosa  Bulimia nervosa  Binge eating disorder  Young women  All people  Beginnings of disorders

62 Society’s Influence  Many causes to eating disorders  Societal pressure for thinness  Distorted body image  Media messages  Unrealistic ideals  Dieting as risk

63 Eating Disorders in Athletes  Motivations  Risk factors  Male and female athletes  Female athlete triad  Three medical problems  Male athletes and eating disorders  Muscle dysmorphia

64 The Female Athlete Triad

65 Tips for Combating Eating Disorders

66 Anorexia Nervosa  Characteristics  Cannot recognize condition  Role of the family  Self-starvation  Physical perils  Damage to whole body  Death  Treatment

67 Criteria for Diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa

68 Bulimia Nervosa  Characteristics  More prevalent than anorexia nervosa  Role of the family  Binge eating and purging  Stages of a binge  Methods for purging  Physical and psychological perils  Treatment

69 Criteria for Diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa

70 The Cycle of Bingeing, Purging, and Negative Self-Perception

71 Binge Eating Disorder  Differences from bulimia nervosa  Responds more readily to treatment

72 Criteria for Diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder


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