Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney
2 Learning ObjectivesDelineate the health risks of too little and too much body fatness, with emphasis on central obesity and its associated health risks.Describe the roles of BMR and several other factors in determining an individual’s daily energy needs.
3 Learning ObjectivesCalculate the BMI when given height and weight information for various people, and describe the health implications of any given BMI value.Compare and contrast the roles of the hormones ghrelin and leptin in appetite regulation, and name several other influences on both hunger and satiety.
4 Learning ObjectivesDiscuss the potential impact of “outside the body” factors on weight-control efforts.Develop a weight-loss plan that includes controlled portions of nutrient-dense foods to produce gradual weight loss while meeting nutrient needs.Discuss the role of physical activity in maintaining a healthy body composition.
5 Learning ObjectivesDefend the importance of behavior modification in weight loss and weight maintenance over the long term.Compare and contrast the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and provide strategies for combating eating disorders.
6 Introduction Health risks Weight “control” Body composition Overweight UnderweightWeight “control”Focus on weightFocus on controlling weightFocus on short-term endeavorsBody composition
7 The Problems of Too Little or Too Much Body Fat U.S. prevalenceUnderweightOverweightEpidemicChildren and adolescents
11 What Are the Risks from Underweight? DisadvantagesSiege or famineHospital staysWasting diseaseHeart disease
12 What Are the Risks from Too Much Body Fat? Obesity-related illnessesDying youngObesity vs. smokingHypertensionCentral obesityOther risks
13 What Are the Risks from Central Obesity? Risks of visceral fatSubcutaneous fatAdipokinesRegulate inflammatory processesCentral obesity causes a shiftFree fatty acidsFactors affecting fat distribution
22 The Body’s Energy Balance Estimated energy requirements (EER)Reference man and womanTaller peopleNeed more energyEnergy need diminishes with ageDRI methodGender, age, physical activity, body size and weight, and growth
23 Body Weight Versus Body Fatness Body Mass Index (BMI)UnderweightOverweightObesityRisks follow racial linesDrawbacksAmount or location of fatDiagnosis requirements
31 The Mystery of Obesity Appetite Initiates eating Endorphins Factors affecting appetite
32 The Mystery of Obesity “Stop” signals Satiation Satiety Food in digestive tractHormonesHypothalamusSatietyRegulates frequency of meals
33 The Mystery of Obesity Leptin Energy nutrients Adipokine hormone Appetite regulationLeptin resistanceEnergy nutrientsProtein provides most satiation
34 Inside-the-Body Causes of Obesity Metabolic theoriesVariations in ease of body fat gain or lossVariety of theoriesGeneticsInfluence tendency to gain weight or stay leanEnvironmental factors
35 Outside-the-Body Causes of Obesity External cues to overeatingAvailable foodsHuman sensationsLarger portionsPhysical inactivityNonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)Inactivity epidemicSitting still and death from heart disease
36 Outside-the-Body Causes of Obesity Built environmentCan discourage physical activityFood accessFood desertsFast foodAttain healthy body weightDietPhysical activityBehavior change
37 How the Body Loses and Gains Weight Tissue lost or gainDepends on what you doWaterFat or muscleSmokingHazards
38 Moderate Weight Loss Versus Rapid Weight Loss Gradual weight loss is preferredFastingBody adjustmentsSacrifice lean tissueDeathKetosisBreak down of fat molecules
40 Moderate Weight Loss Versus Rapid Weight Loss Short-term fastingSeems to be toleratedEffects of deprivationOvereat or binge eatingWeight loss techniqueSlowing of metabolismLow-carbohydrate dietsDRI minimum carbohydrate intake level
41 Weight Gain Energy-yielding nutrients contribute to body stores Four sources of energyAlcoholTwo types of energy storesAn excess of any food will become fat
42 Popular Fad Diets Effectiveness Adequacy Safety Both sides of the coinAdequacyTo be achieved via food, not supplementsSafetyPersonal responsibility
43 Achieving and Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight Changing your body weightWhat is your motivation?Benefits of modest weight lossFocus on health or fitness
45 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss? Aim for a realistic targetReasonable goalsSpecific and measurable objectivesRecommended weight loss1 to 2 pounds per weekWeight maintenanceKeep recordsPlan your diet
46 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss? Realistic calorie intakesNutrient needs and caloric intakeMenWomenAdequate dietsChoose sensiblyConsider a supplementCalcium
47 Recommended Daily Food Intakes for Low-Calorie Diets
48 What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss? Manage portion sizesReduced-calorie foodsRead labelsCalorie calculationsLittle daily decisions add upEnergy densityLow energy densityMay not reflect nutrient density
68 Bulimia Nervosa Characteristics Role of the family More prevalent than anorexia nervosaRole of the familyBinge eating and purgingStages of a bingeMethods for purgingPhysical and psychological perilsTreatment