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Whip Me, Beat Me…Make Me Wear Bad Elizabethan

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1 Whip Me, Beat Me…Make Me Wear Bad Elizabethan
So many men, so little time: Dressing the Elizabethan Male

2 Overview In the age of Elizabeth, a man’s outfit was very similar in layers to a man’s dress outfit today. Where we have a suit coat and slacks, they had a doublet and breeches. Like a fine wool over coat that we wear over our suits today, they had a jerkin or a loose jacket (if they were older). We wear socks, and they wore hosen…and of course we both have shoes. Once you think of the Elizabethan male’s outfit in the context of the same layers we wear today, it seems a bit less odd. Of course the silhouette is incredibly different, which is what we are going to review in the class: the proper man’s silhouette in the late 16th century and how to achieve it by understanding the layers involved. We will not only look at the clothing, but at some of the necessary accessories as well that any well dressed Elizabethan man would have had. This class is designed not to focus on the construction but rather the composition of a proper Elizabethan man’s outfit. I later classes we will examine construction of different garments.

3 Shirts and hosen: upper and lower
Underneath it all Shirts and hosen: upper and lower

4 Hosen: Upper and Lower By the age of Elizabeth, men’s hosen were very well fitted and resemble “tights” that we have today in fit. England cornered the market on hosen production with the introduction of hand woven silk and worsted hosen. There are many records of Elizabeth being given silk stockings as gifts. For men, lower hosen (nether stocks) rose just above the knee and were held in place by ribbon garters. Sometimes there were pulled up over their breeches and worn with a very ornamental garter (see picture at right) , or they were pulled inside the breeches. Men also had long hose, which covered the entire leg and were tied into the waist of the breeches or doublets using ties that were called “points.” these were used mainly with shorter breeches that revealed more of the leg. The best way to achieve the right look without hand weaving your own silk stockings is to find a nice cotton/lycra mix fabric and construct your own. I caution from using commercial tights, as they fit too well. They do not bag in the right places ie. ankle and knee.

5 Upper hosen, or upper stocks were typically made out of linen and resembled long boxer shorts that men wear today, though perhaps a bit more fitted. They had a drawstring waist and sometimes drawstring legs. They could be embroidered, but that would be something reserved mainly for the aristocracy. You can create a pattern for these by tracing a pair of shorts at the inseam and adjusting them so that they resemble the pattern below. For the Elizabethan costuming maven, this is a nice garment to have, but not absolutely necessary to achieve an acceptable Elizabethan silhouette. waist waist back back front

6 Pleating/gathering at the shoulder
The Shirt The Elizabethan man’s shirt differed from a woman’s high necked only in length and the absence of side gores for fullness. Work-a-day undergarments were typically made of linen or a linen-cotton mix called fustian. The layout for the shirt is fairly simple and sewing instructions can be found on several websites for Elizabethan costume. Often dressier shirts of the upper class were ornamented with embroidery of some description, typically blackwork, whitework, drawnwork, and for the extravagant even gold and silverwork. The picture to the right is an example of what the pattern pieces should look like when creating a shirt. Gussets were used in the underarm to provide wider range of motion and comfort Pleating/gathering at the shoulder Shoulders are on square piece of fabric that has an amount of pleating at the shoulder and larger amount into the cuff The body of the shirt is typically one rectangle of fabric gathered into the collar

7 The Doublet The Doublet was the equivalent of a modern man’s suit coat. Typically it closed down the front with buttons or hooks and eyes. Lacing may have also been used for closing the doublet, but much less frequently than the afore mentioned methods. The desired silhouette for a man, is much the same as it is today, broad shoulders and a narrow waist. Much was done on the part of tailors to exagerate these desired traits, such as adding tabs at the shoulders and waist, and creating longer points in the front. As the the 16th century progressed to a close, men’s doublets were bombasted (padded) in the chest and stomach to mirror the look of a breast plate. These type of doublets were called peas-cod doublets, as they were said to resemble pea pods. The higher in status a man was, the more fitted his doublet was, often rendering movement a bit difficult. Especially as they could be cut slightly narrow across the shoulders to force a man to have better posture. The unidentified tailor in Giovanni Batiste Marona’s famous portrait ca 1570

8 The Doublet - cont. There many similarities in construction between women’s bodices and men’s doublets: they generally consisted of three layers: an outer layer, an interlining of courser linen or fustian, and a lining of linen or silk. The outside layer, or the layer visible to the eye was of a higher end fabric such as velvet, brocade, finely woven silk, cloth of gold and silver, etc. Ornamentation was limited only by the skill of the artificers. They were beaded, embroidered, pinked, and slashed. However, it is important to remember that ornamentation would have been used in such a fashion as to compliment the desired silhouette. An important note is that doublets did have sleeves on them…the sleeves may have been attached through lacing, ties or buttons, but always there were sleeves. Often there is confusion in this area between a doublet and a jerkin. "Their dublettes are noe lesse monstrous than the reste; For now the fashion is to have them hang down to the middle of their theighes, or at least to their privie members, beeing so harde-quilted, and stuffed, bombasted and sewed, as they can neither woorke, nor yet well plaie in them, through the excessive heate thereof: and therefore are forced to wear them loose about them for the most part:otherwise they could verie hardly eyther stoupe downe, or bowe themselves to the grounde, soe styffe and sturdy they stand about them…” - Stubbes, Anatomie of Abuses

9 The Doublet – cont. The basic doublet pattern resembles something like the image to left. The front of the doublet can be curved to accommodate a larger stomach or padding. The side seam could be moved further back to allow for better fitting or used in addition to the side seam. The pattern is very similar to the same pattern used for a woman’s bodice

10 Venitians, Canions, French Hose and Slops
Breeches Venitians, Canions, French Hose and Slops “…Then have they Hosen, which as they be of divers fashions, so are they of sundry names. Some be called french-hose, some gally-hose, and some Venitians. The french-hose are of two divers makings, for the common french-hose (as they listto call them) containeth length, breadth, and widnes sufficient, and is made very rounde. The other contayneth neither length, breadth nor widenes (beeing not past a a quarter of a yard wide) wherof some be paned, cut and drawne out with costly ornaments, with canions adjoined reaching down beneath their knees. The Gally-hosen are made very large and wide, reaching downe to their knees onely, with three or foure guardes a peece laid down along either hose. And the Venetian-hosen, they reach beneath the knee to the gartering place to the Leg, where they are tyed finely with silk points, or some such like, and laied on also with rewes of laces, or gardes as the other before. And yet notwithstanding all this is not sufficient, except they be made of silk, velvet, saten, damask, and other such precious things beside: yea, every one, Serving man and other inferiour to them, in every condition, wil not stick to flaunte it out in these kinde of hosen, withall other their apparel sutable therunto. In times past, Kings would not disdaine to weare a paire of hosen of a Noble, tenne Shillinges, or a Marke price, with all the rest of their apparel after the same rate; but now it is a small matter to bestowe twentie nobles, ten pound, twentiepound, fortie pound, yea, a hundred pound on one paire of Breeches." - Stubbes’ Anatomie of Abuses, 1587

11 Breeches – cont. The diverse nature of men’s pants during the age of Elizabeth is staggering, as the sundry different fashions from all over Europe made their way to the courts of Elizabeth. There existed, Slops, Venetians, French hose, Trunk hose, Paned hose, Canions, etc. One thing to keep in mind is that whatever material the doublet was constructed of “typically” was what the breeches were constructed of as well, but not always.

12 Breeches – cont. Trunk hose/ slops/ French hose – the basic man’s breech. They are typically pleated into a waist band and leg band…this is perhaps the easiest type of breech to make, as it consists of an outer fabric, an lining, a waistband and leg bands Venetians– very fitted breeches that are pleated into a waist band but taper down to the knees. There is no leg band, as the tapering of the garment allows it to be the circumference of the leg. Often the leg closures were on the side of decorative ribbon Galligaskins/ Pansied Slops – these are the breeches that are affectionately known as “pumpkin pants” in the SCA. These are perhaps the most difficult type to make as there tends to be misunderstanding as to how you construct the panes and pleat them in to the waist band. Often not enough panes are created and the breeches end up looking ill fit and misconstructed. There are examples of propperly constructed in Janet Arnold’s Patterns of Fashion. Canions – from a fitting perspective are perhaps the most difficult to construct, as they are tightly fitted from hip to knee. Most of the time these are worn paired with galligaskins or pansied slops.

13 The Jerkin The Jerkin is often confused with or worn in lieu of the doublet in the SCA, which is incorrect if you are affecting the dress of late 16th century nobility and royalty. The jerkin was a sleeveless over garment worn on top of the man’s doublet. Often in portraits, the jerkin is worn open or closed only at the waste with the doublet showing through the opening in the front. You can use the same pattern for a jerkin that you use for a doublet keeping in mind that the jerkin should be cut looser to accommodate a shirt and doublet underneath it.

14 Hats and Shoes Hats and shoes varied widely, but in this section we will focus mainly on the more common types, as you could spend classes in discussion on just these items alone. We will look at the three following hats: Flat cap, Tall hat, and Toque. In shoes we will look at the court slippers and “jack-boots,” or tall boots. Both were common in the late 16th century.

15 Hats Flat Cap – The flat cap is the typical SCA hat that we see made of multiple circles of fabric conjoined either at their interior or exterior circumfrence. You can find these caps at many SCA merchants as they are fairly simply to make. Typically in period flat caps were worn by younger men of the merchant and upper class. You can find patterns for the flat cap online Italian Flat Cap – not to be confused with a toque. The difference between an Italian flat cap and a standard flat cap is that Italian flat cap has a crown of circular fabric larger that the brim that is pleated or gathered to create a fuller effect that the standard. The Tall Hat – these were worn typically by men of middle or older age. There are extant tall hats that are detailed in Janet Arnold’s Patterns of Fashion. These hats were made of felt, buckram, or pasted paper covered in fabric. The fabric was either perfectly fit to the crown of the hat or pleated into the brim of the hat creating a very interesting look. The Toque – The Toque is kind of an amalgamation of the Tall hat and the Italian Flat Cap. It did have a base structure to give it shape, but instead of having the fabric “pulled” over the crown it was draped and gathered into the brim. This created a fuller “balloon-like” effect!

16 Shoes and boots Court shoes for Elizabethan men were typically two or three piece slippers with a cork or leather sole. The slippers could either be round toed, or as a hold over from Henrecian times, square toed. They often were ornamented with beading, embroidery or slashing. These shoes were fairly delicate and made for in door use. If a man decided to go out of doors, he would put on his “jack boots.” The term jack boots originated in the Elizabethan era, because thee boots would have to be “jacked” or stretched to get them on. Often these boots were worn with decorative garters to keep them from sliding down. The could be worn with the tops turned down or “cuffed,” or they could be worn fully extended to the thigh.

17 Appendix

18 Shirt

19 Sources

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