Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants). 500 400 300 200 100 0 Entognatha Archaeognatha Zygentoma Ephemeroptera Odonata Plecoptera Embiodea Zoraptera Dermaptera.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants). 500 400 300 200 100 0 Entognatha Archaeognatha Zygentoma Ephemeroptera Odonata Plecoptera Embiodea Zoraptera Dermaptera."— Presentation transcript:

1 HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants)

2 Entognatha Archaeognatha Zygentoma Ephemeroptera Odonata Plecoptera Embiodea Zoraptera Dermaptera Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea ? Orthoptera Phasmatodea Blattaria Isoptera Mantodea Psocoptera Phthiraptera Thysanoptera Hemiptera Coleoptera Rhaphidioptera Megaloptera Neuroptera Hymenoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Strepsiptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera SilurianDevonianCarboniferousPermianTriassicJurassicCretaceous Holometabola Neoptera Insecta Pterygota Apterygotes Paleoptera Hemimetabolous Holometabolous Hexapoda

3 So far in classification Neoptera Exopterygota Head with gula Head without gula Neuropteroid Orders mandibulate rostrate Hymenoptera larvae without legs No wings Wings larvae with legs Wings with hairs Wings with scales - Lepidoptera - Trichoptera Siphonaptera 2 4 Diptera Mecoptera Mecopteroid orders

4 Beetle head - Ventral No gula Gula Wasp head - Ventral

5 Hymenoptera Number of Species Common names Distinguishing characteristics Other features Typical habitats Hexapod Orders 125,000 (60 – 90% undescribed) Wasps, bees, ants Diverse -hamulae for wing coupling -ovipositor modified as stinger Hymen - membrane, ptera - wing -constricted ‘waist’ -aposematic colouration

6 Entognatha Archaeognatha Zygentoma Ephemeroptera Odonata Plecoptera Embiodea Zoraptera Dermaptera Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea ? Orthoptera Phasmatodea Blattaria Isoptera Mantodea Psocoptera Phthiraptera Thysanoptera Hemiptera Coleoptera Rhaphidioptera Megaloptera Neuroptera Hymenoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Strepsiptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera SilurianDevonianCarboniferousPermianTriassicJurassiccretaceous Holometabola Neoptera Insecta Pterygota

7 Combination of ancestral and derived traits: Ancestral 1. Mandibulate mouthparts 2. Generalized ovipositor Derived 1. Wing coupling via hamuli 2. Haploid-diploid sex determination

8 Historical Hymenoptera Egyptian tomb Neolithic cave painting

9 Importance Pollination

10 Importance Biological control - Parasitoids

11 Parasitioids Differences from parasites: 1. Single host organism 2. Host will eventually die (after the lifespan of the parasitoid) 3. Can be larvaphagous or oophagous

12 Distinguishing Features 1) Mouthparts (ancestral feature)

13 Distinguishing Features 2) Wing coupling (derived feature) hamulae

14 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications (derived feature) Narrow “waist”

15 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications

16 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications

17 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications First abdominal segment (propodeum)

18 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers gonoplac Tergum 9 first gonapophysis (lancet) second gonapophysis (stylet)

19 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers first gonapophysis (lancet) second gonapophysis (stylet)

20 Distinguishing Features 3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers Venom Glands Venom gland Venom reservoir Dufour’s gland

21 Distinguishing Features 4) Social structure Queen Workers Males (drones)

22 Distinguishing Features 4) Social structure Comparison with Isoptera Hymenoptera Isoptera Worker is adultWorker is nymph Drone is NWhole colony is 2N King is part of colonyDrone is for fertilization only Soldier is specialized workerNo specialized worker classes

23 Distinguishing Features 5) Haplodiploid sex determination Most animals x Siblings – related by 50% Hymenoptera x 2N N Worker/Sisters – related by 75%

24 Hymenoptera - Classification Hymenoptera Apocrita Symphyta ParasiticaAculeata Apoidea Vespoidea Chalcidoidea Ichneumonoidea Sphecoidea Formicoidea ‘waist’No ‘waist’ Free living Parasitoids

25 Hymenoptera - Classification 2 Suborders 1) Symphyta (sawflies) - no ‘waist’ Hymenopteran fossils (Xyelidae) Early Cretaceous

26 Hymenoptera - Classification 2 Suborders 1) Symphyta (sawflies) - no ‘waist’

27 Sawfly Damage

28 Hymenoptera - Classification Hymenoptera Apocrita Symphyta ParasiticaAculeata Apoidea Vespoidea Chalcidoidea Ichneumonoidea Sphecoidea Formicoidea ‘waist’No ‘waist’ Free living Parasitoids

29 Hymenoptera - Classification 2 Suborders 2) Apocrita - waist - includes most Hymenoptera Aculeata (stinging forms) Parasitica (piercing forms)

30 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 1) Formicoidea - ants Formicidae

31 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 1) Formicoidea - ants Formicidae Army ants Leafcutter ants Carpenter ant

32 Carpenter ant damage

33 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 2) Apoidea - bees Honey bee Bumblebee Sweat bee

34 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets Yellowjacket Baldfaced Hornet Paperwasp

35 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets Tarantula hawk - Pepsis

36 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 3) Vespoidea - Nests Yellowjacket Baldfaced Hornet

37 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 3) Vespoidea - Nests Paperwasp (Polistes)

38 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 4) Sphecoidea - digger wasps, mud daubers, potters Digger wasp Mud dauber wasp Potter wasp

39 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies 4) Sphecoidea - nests Digger wasp Mud dauber wasp Potter wasp

40 Hymenoptera - Classification Hymenoptera Apocrita Symphyta ParasiticaAculeata Apoidea Vespoidea Chalcidoidea Ichneumonoidea Sphecoidea Formicoidea ‘waist’No ‘waist’ Free living Parasitoids

41 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies - Parasitica 5) Chalcidoidea

42 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies - Parasitica 5)Ichneumonoidea

43 Hymenoptera - Classification Superfamilies - Parasitica 5)Ichneumonoidea Parasitoids used in biological control Ancestral families -ectoparasitoids on wood boring insects (beetles, caterpillars, wood wasps) Multiple switches to endoparasitoidism

44 Manipulation of host’s physiology Hymenoepimecis Host – spider - Plesiometa

45 Manipulation of host’s physiology Endoparasitoids -must overcome host’s immune system Poly-DNA-virus - integrated into wasp’s chromosomal DNA & transmitted to offspring Poly-DNA-virus -packaged into nucleocapsids in wasp’s ovaries Injected into host Virus expresses genes that compromise host’s immune reaction

46 Manipulation of host’s physiology Wasp temporarily parasitizes the spider and lays egg Wasp larva feeds on spider Near end of development – causes spider to spin different web Web is designed to support wasp cocoon


Download ppt "HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants). 500 400 300 200 100 0 Entognatha Archaeognatha Zygentoma Ephemeroptera Odonata Plecoptera Embiodea Zoraptera Dermaptera."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google