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Body Composition. The amount of fat, and fat-free mass in the body –Fat –Fat-free mass Muscle Bone Body composition assessed in a variety of ways –Advantages.

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Presentation on theme: "Body Composition. The amount of fat, and fat-free mass in the body –Fat –Fat-free mass Muscle Bone Body composition assessed in a variety of ways –Advantages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Composition

2 The amount of fat, and fat-free mass in the body –Fat –Fat-free mass Muscle Bone Body composition assessed in a variety of ways –Advantages for each method –Disadvantages for each method Cost, availability, complexity, user/equipment error, quality/quantity of information, accuracy

3 Scale Weight Provides information on amount body mass Advantages and disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

4 Height and Weight Charts Provides information based on person’s height, weight, frame sizeframe size Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

5 Body Mass Index Person’s weight divided by square of heightPerson’s weight divided by square of height Provides information on disease risk Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

6 Circumferences Specific areas on body are measured with measuring tape Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

7 Waist to Hip Ratio Two circumferences: waist and hip Measures provide CV disease risk information –Men: = “high risk” –Women: = “high risk”

8 Waist to Hip Ratio Abdominal fat related to cardiovascular disease risk Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

9 Near Infrared Interactance Method based on light absorption, reflectance Probe is placed on body part, typically biceps Probe emits infrared light, passing through tissue, reflected back into probe –Fat absorbs more infrared light than fat-free mass –The more light absorbed, the higher the fat mass

10 Near Infrared Interactance Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

11 Skinfolds Specific instruments, “calipers” used to assess amount of fat under skin at specific sites on body Since approximately 50% of body fat is located under skin, predictions can be made about total body fat

12 Skinfolds Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

13 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis A small, painless electrical current passes through body Based on current difference between starting and ending points, percent fat can be estimated –Fat impedes/resists current more than fat-free mass –High impedance values will reflect higher fat mass

14 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

15 Hydrostatic Weighing Person weighed in regular environment, and under water Based on difference, can eventually estimate body volume From volume, one calculates body density From body density, fat percentage calculated Higher density = leaner subject (bone, muscle are denser than fat)

16 Hydrostatic Weighing Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

17 Air Displacement Similar to hydrostatic weighing Device measures air displacement to determine body volume From volume one can calculate body density From body density, fat percentage is calculated

18 Air Displacement Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

19 Dual Energy X-Ray Apsorptiometry (DEXA) Low-radiation dose of dual-energy x-ray beams pass over body Based on attenuation of x-ray, measures of fat, bone and soft lean tissue can be made Based on these measures, fat mass can be calculated

20 DEXA Advantages & Disadvantages –Cost –Availability –Complexity –User/equipment error –Quality/quantity of information –Accuracy

21 What is Average? Body Fat Ranges for Standard Adults (NIH/WHO BMI Guidelines)Body Fat Ranges for Standard Adults Percent Body Fat Norms for Men and Women (American Council on Exercise)Percent Body Fat Norms for Men and Women


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