Presentation on theme: "Non West 2014 SUDAN. Introduction Sudan is a country located at the eastern side of Africa, the largest country in the continent Population- 40.2 million."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Sudan is a country located at the eastern side of Africa, the largest country in the continent Population- 40.2 million 60% Muslim 40% Arabs 60% Black Africans, & 600 ethnic groups Languages: Arabic, English, tribal
Colonization Was colonized by Great Britain The British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north (Muslim) and south (Christian) The north did not fight colonization, so money was spent on Roads, schools, and hospitals The south fought the British, so money was spent on keeping control
Colonization The north became more modern and educated, while the south became poor with a lower standard of living In 1946, the north and south were combined The north controlled the south and Arabic became the official language
Growing Tensions In 1956, Sudan became independent and the north and south shared the government The north mostly follows Islam, but the south follows mostly Christianity and traditional religions The north has few natural resources, but the south has oil The south began to fear that the north would dominate the government
Civil War By 1983, the Muslim leaders from the north had taken over the government They changed the laws to follow the Koran, or the holy book of Islam Rebels from the south fought against the government The fighting finally ended in 2005, after over 20 years, when a peace agreement was signed
On December 9 th, 1948, at the National Genocide Convention, The United Nations promised “never again” about the horrors of Genocide. Yet over 15,000 people were killed every month in Darfur, Sudan
What is Genocide? The term “genocide” was derived from the Greek word for race or tribe, “geno,” and the Latin term for killing, “cide,” literally meaning the killing of a specific people. The murder of an entire ethnic group. One of the most well-known genocides was the Holocaust. Over 6 million Jews were slaughtered, as well as Poles, Homosexuals, Afro-Europeans, Gypsies, the Disabled. However, atrocities like the Holocaust still occur today, mainly unnoticed.
This is not a matter of African starving because of climate or poor crops This is genocide because a government is literally attacking a group of people with the intent of wiping them out. And, they were poor and starving to begin with…
Darfur is located in Sudan, a large country, south of Egypt, on the eastern side of Africa. Darfur is a region on the west side of Sudan, on the border Chad. Population of Sudan: 38 million Population of Darfur: 6 million Life Expectancy: 58 years WHERE IS DARFUR?
Overview What and How Overview What and How What happened in Darfur? –Government neglect –Non-Arab ethnic groups launched an uprising – The government’s response –Racial, not religious How is the violence being conducted? –The Janjaweed will enter a village –Cause Mayhem and Terror –Village destroyed, families dispersed and separated, most killed. –Very few functioning villages left
Darfur A region in the west of Sudan Two main groups: The Africans and the Arabs The Africans argued that the Arabs had more control in the government, which wasn’t spending enough money in Darfur on schools, roads, and hospitals
Darfur African rebels attacked a military base in 2003 The government responded by giving money and weapons to a group of Arab bandits and training them. They were called the “Janjaweed” which means “Devil on Horseback” The Janjaweed attacked African civilians, or people not in the military.
Janjaweed Attacks Rape (Gang and Public) Violent Beatings Murder Abduction Stealing cattle, personal possesions, food, clothing Destroying homes and towns Destroying water sources Separating families, shooting children, Close-range executions…any means necessary
Other Tactics Another tactic commonly used by the Janjaweed was trickery. They would call out to people claiming that they would do them no harm. “We were afraid and wanted to run away,” he said, “but they said: ‘No, no. We don’t want to hurt you. We are the government. Don’t be afraid. We are coming to save you.’”
This map shows the number of villages the Janjaweed Destroyed or Damaged in Sudan
Celebrities, and Their steps to help Darfur GEORGE CLOONEY AND FATHER NICK CLOONEY- UN PEACE ENVOY, AND ACTIVIST JOURNALIST MIA FARROW- ACTIVIST, UNICEF AMBASSADOR, CURRENTLY ON A 21-DAY HUNGER STRIKE TO BRING ATTENTION TO DARFUR ELIE WIESEL- SPEAKER ON GENOCIDE AND ADVOCATE FOR DARFUR DON CHEADLE- CO-AUTHOR OF THE BOOK NOT ON OUR WATCH STEVEN SPIELBURG- RESIGNED AS ARTISTIC ADVISER IN 2008 OLYMPICS IN RESPONSE TO CHINA’S FAILURE IN HELPING DARFUR ANGELINA JOLIE- AMBASSADOR FOR THE UN REFUGEE AGENCY MATT DAMON- MAIN SUPPORTER FOR “DAY FOR DARFUR” BRAD PITT- AMBASSADOR FOR THE UN REFUGEE AGENCY
ALTHOUGH THE CONFLICT WOULD END, 2.7 MILLION PEOPLE WILL STILL HAVE RELOCATED, AWAY FROM THEIR HOMES, THEIR FAMILIES, THEIR FRIENDS, AND NEIGHBORS. THEY WILL STILL HAVE BEEN FORCED TO START NEW LIVES, WITH LITTLE MORE THAN THE CLOTHES ON THEIR BACKS… 400,000 People would still have died
Darfur Because of this, human rights, or basic freedoms that all people should enjoy, were taken away The fighting lasted until 2009, when the United Nations established peace Nearly 400,000 people died, about 7% of the population That’s equal to 60% percent of the population of North Dakota, 75% of the population of Wyoming 2.7 million people are internally displaced, Half of them children About 120,000 refugees have crossed the border into Chad, a neighboring country
Statistics 400,000 + have died as a result of this violence 2 million have been displaced (population of Houston, Texas) 4 million are dependent and 1 million are in need of aid
Sudan Divides In January of 2011, South Sudan voted to become its own country They chose Juba to be the Capital The capital of North? Khartoum The two countries are still fighting about where the border will be and how to split money from oil
Diseases The genocide has also caused the spreading of diseases such as Malaria, Diarrhea, Cholera, Malnutrition, Ebola, Respiratory Infection & HIV AIDS.
Darfur Genocide Timeline July 2010 — The ICC issued a second arrest warrant adding three counts of genocide to the list of charges for crimes in Darfur.second arrest warrant March 2009 — The ICC issued an arrest warrant for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Darfurarrest warrant July 2008 — ICC presented evidence and requested an arrest warrant on 10 charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. September 2006 — President Bush speech to the UN identifying the "unspeakable violence" and "atrocities" in Darfur as genocide. December 2005 — Human Rights Watch reported: “The Sudanese government at the highest levels is responsible for widespread and systematic abuses in Darfur.” January 2005 — United Nations Commission of Inquiry on The commission recommended a referral to the ICC and named 51 suspects to be considered. April 2003 —Regarded as the beginning date of the genocide in Darfur.genocide in Darfur