Drug Abuse Effects & Symptoms Short and Long Term Effects & Withdrawal Symptoms
What is a 'Drug' ? A pharmaceutical preparation or a naturally occurring substance used primarily to bring about any change in the existing process or state (physiological, psychological or biochemical ) is called a ‘drug’.
USE vs. ABUSE USE: Intake of drugs to :- Treat an Illness Prevent a Disease Improve Health Condition ABUSE: Intake of drugs, for reasons other than medical, in such a manner that the drugs affects the physical or mental functioning of the person.
LONG - TERM EFFECTS Mood Instability Reduced Libido Constipation Respiratory Impairments Physical Deterioration In female abusers, menstrual irregularity and fetal addiction / abnormality. Infections like serum hepatitis and HIV can occur among IV users.
WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS Tolerance and Psychological Dependence Develop Feeling Of Unpleasantness Severe Pain Diarrhea Dilation of Pupils Insomnia Hallucinations
STIMULANTS Drugs which Excite or Speed up the Central Nervous System : Amphetamines Cocaine
DEPRESSANTS Drugs which Depress or Slow Down the Functions of the Central Nervous System : Sedative - Hypnotics o Barbiturates o Benzodiazepines Alcohol
DEPRESSANTS : Long Term Effect Long-term Effects of Depressants: Depression Chronic Fatigue Respiratory Impairments Impaired Sexual Function Decreased Attention Span Poor Memory and Judgement Chronic Sleep Problems
HALLUCINOGENS Hallucinogens are drugs which affect Perception, Emotions and Mental Processes. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Phencyclidine (PCP) Mescaline Psilocybin
CANNABIS Cannabis includes : Ganja / Marijuana Hashish / Charas Hashish Oil Bhang. The most common mode Smoking of intake is Smoking.
CANNABIS : Long-term Effects Decreased Cognitive Ability Amotivational Syndrome Respiratory Problems Sterility/Impotence Psychosis In women abusers, Fetal damage can occur
WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS Tolerance and Psychological Dependence Develop Sleep Disturbances Loss of Appetite, Irritability Depression or psychotic symptoms may become prominent Tremors
OTHER DRUGS OF ABUSE Muscle Relaxants Analgesics Anti-Histamines Anti-Emetics Anti-Depressants / Anti-Psychotics
EFFECT S A few examples of possible effects of Drugs !
DAMAGE DUE TO ADDICTION Physical Deterioration Psychiatric Problems Safety Risks (Accidents and highly Risky Behaviour) Intellectual Impairment Personality Deterioration Legal Risks
ALTERED FAMILY DYNAMICS Suffers as financial resources are diverted for alcohol / drugs Loses self esteem due to growing criticism and provocations Isolates from external contacts to protect itself from further embarrassment ies Koqy dy pu`qr ny myrI boql nwlI’c roHV qI !
Enabling Behaviour ieh dwrU nhIN, swfy cwcw jI dI dvweI hY ! In their attempts to eliminate the problem, the family unknowingly enables the addict to continue with his inappropriate behaviour.
Enabling Behaviour : few examples Justifying addict’s use of drugs / alcohol. Calling the employer and making excuses on addict’s behalf to explain his irresponsible behaviour. Paying Debts Incurred by the addict. mW dI AwKrI inSwnI vI geI !
CO-DEPENDENCY TRAITS Loss of Daily Structure Lack of Personal Care Indifference to Health Problems Loss of Priorities in Life
... co-dependency traits Inability to Maintain Interpersonal Relationships Inability to Set and Maintain Limits Inability to Make Decisions Defensiveness
Feelings Experienced by the Family Repeated problems and failures lead to : Shame and Loneliness Hopelessness Fear Hurt Grief Anger Guilt
Impact on Children How the parent’s addiction affects the children ?
IMPACT ON CHILDREN a) Problems Faced by Children b) The Self-imposed Commands (the Self-protection Roles) c) Guidelines to Parents
(a) Problems Faced by Children Lack of Care and Warmth Lack of a Role Model Loss of Self - Esteem Difficulty with Intimate Relationships Living in Constant Fear and Anxiety
(b) The Self-imposed Commands Three Painful, Self - Imposed Commands
ADJUSTING CHILD... the lost child Very Timid Indulges in Solitary Activities ‘Invisible’ and Withdrawn Gets Sick too often (stress related illnesses)
PLACATING CHILD... the mascot Provides Humour / Fun to Reduce Tension in the Family Fear of Not Belonging Fear of Breaking Down Has Not Learnt :- to take Care of his Emotions to express his Needs
REBELLIOUS CHILD... the scapegoat Defiant Acts Out Low Achiever Throws ‘Tantrums’
(c) What Parents can do for the Child Bitter are the Tears of your child Soothen them. Ruffled are the Thoughts of your child Quieten them. Heavy is the Grief of your child Lighten it. Soft is the Heart of your child Embrace it.
Identifying the Child of an Addict Poor attendance without any valid reason Drop in school grades Pre-occupation in class, sleepy unable to concentrate Friendlessness and isolation or being withdrawn
… identifying the child of an addict Sudden temper and other emotional outbursts Extreme fear about situations involving contact with parents Presence of bruises quite often on the child’s body Agitation, rebelliousness
… identifying the child of an addict Inability to pay school fees on time despite father holding a job Unable to comply with school regulations such as bringing in permission slips, materials for project Nobody present during the parent– teacher meeting
DO’s & DONT’s What the family members should :- AAvoid Doing ! NNeed to Do !
Avoid Doing This ! Hiding or throwing away alcohol / drugs. Arguing when he is under the influence. Asking reasons for alcohol / drug use. Lecturing or making Emotional Appeals. (Sticks) - Punishing, Threatening (Carrots) - Bribing In the long run, none of these methods work.
What Family Need to Do ! To accept that addiction is a serious problem which requires professional help To calmly discuss addiction and related problems openly
… need to do ! To stop protecting by covering up the consequences of drug / alcohol use. Don’t feel or give the impression that the addict is doing a favour by not ‘using’
… need to do ! Start communicating openly to the other family members about their concerns To plan one day at a time and start executing them
… need to do ! Let him start looking after their own needs and the needs of other family members Let him understand that he is not alone and that all our help is available
… need to do ! Try To identify healthy leisure activities