Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Industrial Microbiology. Industrial microbiology Iln'y a pas des sciences appliquées... mais il y a des applications de la science. -Louis."— Presentation transcript:
Industrial microbiology Iln'y a pas des sciences appliquées... mais il y a des applications de la science. -Louis Pasteur (There are no applied sciences... but there are the applications of science.)
What is industrial microbiology? Industrial microbiology is the use of micro- organisms to make something we want or prevention of them from making something we do not want. ─Miller, B.M. & W. Litsky. 1976. Industrial microbiology is concerned with employing microorganisms to produce a desired product and with preventing microorganisms from diminishing the economic value of various products. ─Atlas, R.M. 1988.
Industrial microbiology & biotechnology Industrial microbiology is the major foundation of biotechnology. ─Crueger, W. & A. Crueger. 1990. Microbial biotechnology is that aspect of bio- technology which deals with processes involving microorganisms. Microbial biotechnology, sometimes called industrial microbiology. ─Brock, T.D. & M.T. Madigan. 1991.
Methods for obtaining desired organic compounds Extraction of plants or organs of animals Total chemosynthesis Partial chemosynthesis starting from natural products Native or controlled biosynthesis Enzymatic transformation of natural products or chemically synthesized substrates Examples?
Classification of microbial products - in terms of source - 1 The microbial cells: Baker’s yeast, mushrooms, algae, single-cell proteins, rhizobia as legume inoculants, inoculants or starters, bio-agents... Microbial enzymes: amylases, cellulase, proteases, microbial rennin, lipases, glucose isomerase, penicillin acylase, cholesterol oxidase, restriction enzymes... Microbial metabolites: fermentation products such such as ethanol, acetone, lactic acid; growth factors such as amino acids, vitamins, citric acid; secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, alkaloids...
Classification of microbial products - in terms of source - 2 Genetically engineered proteins: human hormones such as insulin and human growth hormone; immune modulators such as interferons, interleukins; blood proteins such as blood-clotting factors, serum albumin; recombinant vaccines such as hepatitis B vaccine, rabies vaccine, diarrhea vaccine for pigs; monoclonal antibodies..
Two categories of microbial biotechnology (Crueger, W. & A. Crueger. 1990) Traditional microbial technology New microbial technology
Traditional microbial technology Large-scale manufacture by microorganisms of products that they are normally capable of producing The microbiologist's task is primarily to modify the organism or the process so that the highest productivity of the desired product is obtained.
New microbial technology Use of microorganisms into which foreign genes have been inserted The microbiologist works closely with the genetic engineer in the development of a suitable organism which not only produces a novel product of interest, but is capable of commercial exploitation.
Critical activities of industrial microbiologists The search for microorganisms of commercial importance The design of the optimal production process
The search for microorganisms of commercial importance Finding or creating specific strains of microorganisms that will yield sufficient quantities of the desired product to permit commercial production on an economically favorable basis Screening, mutating, cell fusing, genetic engineering...
The design of the optimal production process Defining the substrate mixture that contains the least expensive components and will produce the highest yield of the desired product; Designing fermentors to optimize the environmental conditions in order to achieve maximal product yields; Developing recovery methods that achieve separation of the desired product from microbial cells, residual substrate, and other metabolic products in the most economical manner
References Atlas, R.M. 1988. Industrial microbiology (chap.17). In Microbiology: fundamentals and applications, Macmillan Publishing Company. Brock, T.D. and M.T. Madigan. 1991. Microbial biotechnology (chap.10). In Biology of microorganisms (6th ed.). Prentice-Hall International, Inc. Crueger, W. and A. Crueger. 1990. Biotechnology: a textbook of industrial microbiology (T.D. Brock, English ed., 2nd ed.), Science Tech. Publishers. Miller, B.M. and W. Litsky. 1976. Industrial microbiology, McGraw-Hill, Inc.