Please Note Majority of the presentation will play in an auto-advance mode i.e the slides will change automatically after a few set seconds. Slides with the word ‘Interactivity’ in the title, contain instructions to either click a text/image or quiz, to learn more/solve them. Once you finish reading you will have to click the close button to advance to the next slide.
In this lesson you will Understand different types of information resources and their characteristics Learn to classify information resources & understand which type of resource you need for your question Understand important basic principles of searching for information Lesson Objectives
Information Resources Today there are many information resources, both in print and online. How do we figure which ones work for us, when we need information? Let us understand what each one does for us and also what it may not do for us. If you had a question about a liver disease/ condition would you instantly know which of these resources to refer?
Interactivity Different Information Resources Click the picture of each resource to know some of its characteristics. Textbook Handbook Journal
Different Information Resources Textbook Covers a subject broadly and gives adequate background information But it takes a few years to be published, so the research material in a textbook maybe 5-6 yrs old.. Click this button to move to the next set of information
Different Information Resources Handbook A concise resource that gives specific information about a particular subject. Some handbooks cover a set of instructions for a topic. Click this button to move to the next set of information
Different Information Resources Journal Journals are publications published at a regular interval. Journals are where research is published, most often after being reviewed by other experts. Click this button to move to the next set of information.
Dr Swayam, a cardiologist in a district hospital wants to learn about step by step management of heart failure. Which if these resources should he refer to? Click the appropriate image of a resource from the options given below. Interactivity Test yourself!
Correct Feedback Yes! You are right. A handbook on cardiology will contain information on specific topics such as step-by-step management of heart failure. Journal articles could cover any aspect of the management of heart failure, while a text book will have all the foundational coverage on the topic Click this button to move to the next slide.
Incorrect Feedback Sorry – that’s not it. The right answer is – Handbook. A handbook on cardiology will contain information on specific topics such as step-by-step management of heart failure. Journal articles will have generic information on management of heart failure while a textbook on cardiology will have very comprehensive information. Click this button to move to the next slide
You will figure out answers to questions like: What is the difference between a monograph and a handbook? I wonder if there is a resource that can give me indications if I just feed in my patient’s symptoms? You will learn several other interesting details about every information resource More in the E-Learning modules…
Topic II - Classification of Information Resources
Analyze the scenarios mentioned below What were Dr. Sharanya and Dr. Vivek doing wrong? Dr. Sharanya, a first year resident needed information about advances in lung cancer treatment, for a journal club. She spent many hours going through textbooks but could not get the kind of updates she required. A patient asked Dr. Vivek whether laparoscopic surgery was better than open surgery for gallstones. Dr. Vivek, went through few search engines and spent many hours. Though he found a few articles, none of them provided a definite answer.
Every information resource caters to specific types of information needs. To understand what any resource can cater to, we need to know the scope of a resource – what it will offer and what it will not offer. This makes it is easy for us to refer to the right kind of resources. Information NeedsResources
Information resources can be classified into three types 1.Type I Type I resources contain background or factual information. For Eg: Print and online versions of textbooks, medical dictionaries, drug resources like CIMS, MIMS 2.Type II Type II resources provide current and old research - Published as well as unpublished. For Eg: Print and online versions of journals, theses and dissertations, conference proceedings, clinical trial registries 3.Type III Type III Resources analyze / grade / check for bias / summarize the data from all available high quality evidence based resources to provide the current state of evidence. Special resources help in differential diagnosis too.
Type IType IIType III PrintHarrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine New England Journal of Medicinexxxxx MIMS (drug reference manual)Index medicus (no longer in print now) Theses and dissertations xxxxx OnlineHarrisons Online - http://www.harrisonsim.com/ http://www.harrisonsim.com/ Free Medical Books http://www.freebooks4doctor s.com/ http://www.freebooks4doctor s.com/ Journal websites: www.nejm.org Collection of Journals: Eg: Medind-www.medind.nic.inwww.nejm.orgwww.medind.nic.in Directory of Open Access Journals: doaj.org doaj.org The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: www.thecochranelibrary.com MIMS / CIMS http://www.mims.com/ Database of bibliographic records of journals PubMed: www.pubmed.gov IndMED: www.indmed.nic.inwww.pubmed.govwww.indmed.nic.in Evidence Summaries www.uptodate.com/ Clinical decisions support sytems www.isabelhealthcare.com More examples of each type of resource
Now try and understand which resources answer the young doctors’ needs. Textbooks contain background information. Dr. Sharanya should refer to Type II resources such as journal articles to check all that has been published on her topic. For Dr. Vivek’s question, different articles may have given different conclusions. He needed a Systematic Review (Type III resource) to get a decisive answer to his question
When would you refer to a journal article instead of a systematic review? What are the different evidence based resources? How will you classify websites that have more than one type of resource? More in the E-Learning modules…
What is ‘Literature Search?’ It helps to find published literature on a topic Literature search is the foundation of any research activity. It helps to stay updated in one’s field, or to get answers to specific research questions. Searching systematically yields focused results Systematic searching is based on fundamental principles of a discipline called ‘Information Sciences’
Most large resources/databases have structured information content. We can base our searching on such a structure and retrieve focused information. What is ‘Literature Search?’
This is a list of collections of journal references on Asthma. Note that every article is represented by structured data. Title Author/s Journal
Four Principles of Literature Searching In this section we will learn four principles of literature searching. 1. Plain keyword searching 2. Thesaurus based searching 3. Combining search terms 4. Searching in specific fields We will learn these in the context of searching the PubMed database. PubMed is compiled in the National Library of Medicine (NLM), USA.
PubMed www.pubmed.gov PubMed is an "Index" to more than 4800 biomedical journals published worldwide. A search in PubMed retrieves a list of "References” (Bibliographic details) of articles published in these journals. PubMed does not contain the full-text articles of these journals, those are in the respective journal websites.
Principle I: Keyword Search A keyword search retrieves references that contain the word
When you type a word for eg: asthma, in the PubMed search box, PubMed retrieves references that contain the word in any part of the bibliographic details. Asthma Bibliographic fields include In this reference the word is present in the title and also in the abstract. 1.Article Title 2.Abstract 3.Author Name 4.Journal Title 5.And more…
A keyword search can often fetch irrelevant records The abstract contains the word asthma, but says something about ‘unrelated to asthma’ We searched for Asthma
For example, if you want to know about a rare disease /new conditions But a keyword search can be useful too
To get references about your search term you need to use special keywords that are standardized. PubMed uses special keywords called MeSH. MeSH stands for Medical Subject Headings
MeSH terms are standard keywords added by indexers at the NLM, to every article from every journal that is included in PubMed. MESH You may think: “Big deal…. The title says it all. Why do I need Mesh terms?” This article is about the diagnosis and pathology of Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia Techniques of cytology Diagnosis and pathology of breast neoplasms MeSH terms describe the whole article.
MESH So check this one… Does this title really indicate what aspect of diagnosis or treatment the article is about? The list of MeSH Terms describes the article. We now know it is about mammography and management of breast cancer
MESH Searches To retrieve references about our topic, we need to type the search term followed by [MESH]. For eg: Breast cancer [mesh] would retrieve the following reference Note – PubMed has searched for the phrase – breast cancer ‘in the list of MeSH terms’ in this record. Indexers have standardized the phrase to ‘breast neoplasms’ and found this phrase.
MESH Searches It would also retrieve this one You got this reference because it has searched Breast Neoplasms in the Mesh list. Even though the title is vague.
Note the Difference That’s not too large a difference …
Note the Difference Here the number of results have reduced to less than half! Just imagine how much time you can save! Take a look at this example of using the mesh search
Searching with MeSH To find the best standardized term/s that represent your search terms, you need to check them in the MeSH database
We teach you the world called the MESH database! How do you use the MeSH database to Search for aspects of a topic? Focus your search on a topic? And How do you search for topics that are not MESH Terms? All these will be covered in full detail with exercises More in the E-Learning modules…
Our search queries do not contain just one word but a combination of words and this is how we generally enter them in the PubMed search box
Combining Search Terms However, PubMed does not recognize words like of, for, in etc, which we use in our search queries. Then how do you combine search terms?
Use ‘Boolean Operators’ To combine search terms, you need to use connecting terms called Boolean Operators. PubMed uses these three operators 1.AND 2.OR 3.NOT Boolean operators must be in capital letters.
Click each Boolean Operator to see how it combines search terms. AND OR NOT Interactivity Boolean Operators
Boolean Operator AND AND means “compulsory” presence of all the search terms in any part of the bibliographic details When we combine two search terms using AND, PubMed retrieves records that CONTAIN both the terms For example: Diarrhea AND Malnutrition - gets us references that CONTAIN both the terms Click this button to move to the next set of information
Boolean Operator OR OR means “any” When we combine two search terms using OR, in the results, PubMed retrieves records with Any one term or Both the terms together in any part of the bibliographic details For Eg: Diarrhea OR Malnutrition gets us references that contain diarrhea alone or Malnutrition alone or both terms together. Click this button to move to the next set of information
Boolean Operator NOT NOT means elimination When we combine two search terms using NOT, PubMed retrieves records that contains the first term and from those eliminates records that contain the second term Example: Diarrhea NOT Malnutrition retrieves records that contain diarrhea and from those the references that contain the word malnutrition are eliminated Click this button to move to the next slide
Interactivity QUIZ Click the correct combination search. Analgesics AND Anesthetics Analgesics OR Anesthetics Analgesics NOT Anesthetics If you wanted references on Analgesics as well as Anesthetics, which of the following search strategies would you use?
Correct feedback Yes that’s absolutely correct. You wanted information containing both classes of drugs. When you use the operator OR, every record you get will have information about any one class or both Using AND would have retrieved references that definitely contain both classes. So you may miss a classical article that reviews only one of the classes. Using NOT would have retrieve references that contain analgesics and from that eliminate the word anesthetics Click this button to move to the next slide
Incorrect feedback Sorry – AND is not the answer. Using AND would retrieve references that definitely contain both classes. So you may miss a classical article that reviews only one of the classes. The correct answer is OR. You wanted information containing both classes of drugs. When you use the operator OR, every record you get will have information about Anesthetics or Analgesics or both Using NOT would retrieve references that contain analgesics and from that eliminate the word anesthetics Click this button to move to the next slide
Incorrect feedback Sorry – NOT is not the answer. Using NOT retrieve references that contain analgesics and from that eliminate the word anesthetics The correct answer is OR. You wanted information containing both classes of drugs. When you use the operator OR, every record you get will have information about any one class or both Using AND would retrieve references that definitely contain both classes. So you may miss a classical article that reviews only one of the classes. Click this button to move to the next slide
Learn to combine three or more terms with a mixed use of the three operators Learn to group your terms correctly, using parantheses Use examples and exercises in the modules to practice and gain confidence More in the E-Learning modules…
We know that PubMed contains bibliographic details of journal articles, and such details are organized in a structured manner. Field searches, help us search for our terms in ‘specific fields’ or ‘areas’ of the bibliographic record. For the journals indexed in PubMed you can search for references by: Searching for a word or phrase in the title of the article Asthma [ti] Searching for articles written by an author Wilson[author] Searching for articles in a specific journal Indian Journal of Ophthalmology[jour]
Observe these search queries and see how field and Boolean can be used to combine search terms and form search strategies Search QueriesSearch Strategies For a quick list of articles on measles in children Articles written by BD James in the New England Journal of Medicine About malaria in India and Bangladesh – in 2013 Measles [ti] AND children[ti] James BD [au] AND New England Journal of Medicine [jour] Dp = date of publication Malaria[mesh] AND (India[mesh] OR Bangladesh[mesh]) AND 2013[dp]
There are several other fields in the bibliographic records in PubMed You will learn to use these fields effectively More in the E-Learning modules…
What you just went through, was the tip of the iceberg - about information resources and how to use them We look forward to your registering for our E- Learning modules, get a thorough understanding of these courses and teach / help others! That’s it for now!
Disclaimer This was a ‘preview demo’ of what will feature in QMed’s E- Learning modules It contained clips of content from three courses and a few functionalities such as quizzes and scenario based learning. The actual modules will have different interactive learning scenarios and animations.
Please Note Our e-learning modules will directly be useful to a learner and also to a teacher or guide, as a teaching aid. The courses have been divided into smaller topics for users to go through them in a time-bound manner Literature Search and Reference Management is most often not taught in the medical curriculum. Hence, every concept has been covered in-depth, with scenarios and interactivities, to ensure clarity in understanding the concepts. The content in our modules caters to a large target - from undergraduate medical students, to senior health professionals. Hence if something seems too simple, do remember that this maybe challenging for another, and the way we teach, will be useful for you to teach someone else.
Please Note The images of information resources used in the course content are for representational purposes only. The copyright of the images rests with the respective resource owner.
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