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*Lisa Pohlman, *Marjory Artzer, **Verona Chaffin * Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, **Allcare Animal Hospital,

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Presentation on theme: "*Lisa Pohlman, *Marjory Artzer, **Verona Chaffin * Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, **Allcare Animal Hospital,"— Presentation transcript:

1 *Lisa Pohlman, *Marjory Artzer, **Verona Chaffin * Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, **Allcare Animal Hospital, Shawnee,KS Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

2 History; 16-week-old intact female, Bengal (Poppy) RDVM December 28, 2007 Diarrhea, seromucoid nasal discharge & mild failure to thrive De-wormed, antibiotics, SC fluids & sent home January 7 th Recheck Nasal discharge had cleared Diarrhea worse → diagnosed coccidia Albon January 11 th Recheck Diarrhea Fecal wet mount → abundant motile organisms A video recording of the organisms A saline diluted, air-dried fecal smear Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

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4 A variety of bacteria (mostly rods), debris, and protozoal organisms (9 to 12 um x 6 to 9 um) with 3 anterior flagella, 1 posterior flagella,1 nucleus, undulating membrane, central axostyle Wright’s 100x Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

5 Further tests & Diagnosis Culture (In Pouch TM TF-Feline) PCR Tritrichomonas foetus Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

6 Trichomonads Primitive eukaryotic organisms Obligate protozoan symbionts Multiple anterior flagella Undulating membrane Reproduction via binary fission Trophozoites are transferred from host to host directly Commensal & pathogenic species identified Tritrichomonas foetus -- pathogenic Pentatrichomonas hominis – non-pathogenic Tritrichomonas foetus Beef%20Cow%20Symposium%20web.htm Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

7 Tritrichomonas foetus Cattle Venereal pathogen Pigs gastrointestinal tract & nasal mucosa T. foetus = T. suis Dogs Diarrhea Cats Enteric pathogen of cats Uterus Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

8 T. foetus; Enteric Pathogen in Cats Colonizes colon +/- observable symptoms Chronic diarrhea Feces dribble from anus Young, densely housed cats ~1/3 of the purebred feline population infected Absence of diarrhea ≠ cat free of infection Misidentified as Giardia Pentatrichomonas hominis Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

9 Pentatrichomonas Tritrichomonas Giardia spp. hominis foetus CareF/SickF/Protozo/Proto.html Non-pathogenic 5 anterior flagella one-week-done-35-to-go.html Beef%20Cow%20Symposium%20web.htm Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

10 Histologic Features of T. foetus M. J. Yaeger & J. L. Gookin, Vet Pathol 42: (2005) Colonic trichomonads (6 sections recommended) Lymphoplasmacytic & neutrophilic colitis Eosinophils not a prominent feature Crypt epithelial cell Hypertrophy Hyperplasia ↑ mitotic activity ↓ goblet cells Crypt microabscesses Attenuated superficial colonic mucosa +/- Macrophages Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

11 Prognosis & Other Concerns Infected Cats No effective antibiotic treatment Overall health not adversely affected ~90% diarrhea will stop within two years Remain source of infection to other cats Hypothesis Prolonged presence of organisms Predisposition to IBD? Zoonotic Potential? Human infection with T. foetus (1 case) Immunosuppressed & previous stem cell transplantation Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

12 Unresponsive to antimicrobial treatment T.foetus PCR Saline diluted feces  Motile organisms  Air dried smear Culture In Pouch TM TF media Histopathology Min. 6 sections M. J. Yaeger and J. L. Gookin Vet Pathol 42: (2005) With Permission Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

13 Acknowledgements Shon Koenig Shelly Christenson Nathan Rodriguez Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


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