Presentation on theme: "Water pollution in Portugal. Water … Since we started inventing machines and building factories, that most rivers, lakes and european seas have been."— Presentation transcript:
Water pollution in Portugal
Water … Since we started inventing machines and building factories, that most rivers, lakes and european seas have been used as an easy way to get rid of our garbage.This position damaged many plants and animals, jeopardizing human health and polluting coastal waters.
Importance of water Water is an essential element to all living beings ( without it no living being can survive) Uses of Water Human supply; Industrial supply; Irrigation; Generate electricity; Navigation; Animal and plant preservation; Aquaculture; Recreation; Dilution of garbage.
“It is any physical, chemical or biological alteration in the water that may cause injury to our health, safety and well being. It is also important to mention that pollution can compromise fish fauna, industry, commerce and energy generation”. Water pollution
Causes of water pollution Urban development Industrial waste Chemical fertilizers and pesticides
Classification of water pollutants Bacterial Organic Chemical Thermal Radioactive
Bacterial Contact with human waste carriers of pathogenic organisms by sewage or direct route. Organic It receives a large amount of organic matter from industrial or domestic waste.
Chemical The use of fertilizers and pesticides. Thermal Considerable thermal pollution results due to discharge of hot water from thermal power plants, nuclear power plants, and industries where water is used as coolant. Radioactive discharge from nuclear power plants. Radioactive
Measures to control water pollution Regulation of river flow; Increase turbulence; Adding a chemical source; Environment diagnosis; Effective legislation ; Wastewater treatment
Diseases related to water Infectious Diarrhea Cholera Polio Hepatitis
Infectious diarrhea It is characterized by frequent and watery bowel movements, is often caused by gastrointestinal infections, although it can also come from other illnesses or changes in diet. Germs such as parasites and viruses can cause gastrointestinal infections. Cholera Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The bacteria releases a toxin that causes increased release of water from cells in the intestines, which produces severe diarrhea. It occurs in places with poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine.
Polio Hepatitis Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver and also refers to a group of viral infections that affect the liver. The most common types are: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Polio is a viral illness that, in about 95% of cases, actually produces no symptoms at all (called asymptomatic polio). In the 4% to 8% of cases in which there are symptoms called symptomatic polio, the illness appears in three forms: - abortive polio - nonparalytic polio - paralytic polio
Sources of pollution Industrial waste; Animal waste; Chemical pesticides and fertilizers; Landfilling; Wrong construction of septic tanks;
Sources of pollution Salinization Deforestation Eutrophication Human activities that affect the water quality and quantity
Salinization Salinization is the process by which water-soluble salts accumulate in the soil. Salinization is a resource concern because excess salts hinder the growth of crops by limiting their ability to take up water.
Deforestation Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses. An estimated 18 million acres of forest are lost each year. Deforestation is typically done to make more land available for housing and urbanization, timber, large scale cash crops such as soy and palm oil, and cattle ranching.
Eutrophication The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients. These typically promote excessive growth of algae. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish.
The main forms of pollution affecting our water resources are: Water reserves Pollution Sediments Biological Thermal
Sediment pollution Many of the sediments in our rivers, lakes, and oceans have been contaminated by pollutants. Many of the contaminants were released years ago while other contaminants enter our water every day. Some contaminants flow directly from industrial and municipal waste dischargers, while others come from polluted runoff in urban and agricultural areas.
Biological pollution Water can be infected because of pathogenic microorganisms, specially in drinking water. These microorganisms can exist in sewers.
Thermal Pollution It refers to an increase of temperature in a body of water due to human or environmental causes. One of the major causes of thermal pollution is industrial use of water as a coolant. Factories and power plants typically use nearby sources of water to keep machinery cool and functional.
One of the causes of pollution… A C B Population growth; Urbanization Increase in agricultural production and the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Both answers Question 1