8Continental divide of the United States River systems are divided into regions called watersheds or drainage basinsThis is the area of land that is drained by a water system.River systems are seperated from each other by areas of higher ground called a divide.
11Fact…..55% of North Carolina residents get there “potable” water (drinking water or usable water) from surface waters.Surface water – any water aboveground such as rivers and lakesWhy do the rest of them get there water from?
12Groundwater Water located within the rocks underground Enters ground by precipitation infiltrating or percolating down through the soil and rockWhere water enters the ground is called the “recharge zone”.
14Underground area is divided into zones Zone of aeration – upper zone, this is the area that the rainwater passes through (Acts as a filter …. Removes impurities from water)Zone of saturation – lower zone, water collects here and fills the spaces between the rock particles with water.Water table – boundary where the two zones meet
15Water tableThe water table can rise and fall based on the amount rainfall.It will lower during a drought and rise during periods of heavy rain.
16AquifersA rock layer that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater.Consist of rocks, sand and gravel with a lot of air spaces in which water can accumulate.What determines if a rock or sediment is capable of storing water?
17PorosityThe percentage of open space (or pores) between individual rock particles in a rock layer.
18Porosity is influenced by .. The different sizes of the particles in the rock layer.In other words, if you mix sand and gravel, the sand would fill in the spaces between the gravel; therefore, there would be less open space between the grains. Meaning less space to hold water !
19Permeablity The ability to let water pass through. If the pores of a rock layer are connected, groundwater can flow through the rock layer.A rock that stops the flow of water is impermeable.
24Rivers of controversy Rights to rivers water can cause conflict: Example: Arizona and California fight over the rights to the Colorado River
25Middle East Water Conflicts Turkey is building dams that will severely reduce the amount of water that will flow into Syria and Iraq
26Groundwater Issues Aquifers are running dry. People are pulling more water out of the ground than is being put in.Urbanization is causing a loss of recharge zones for groundwater aquifers …… ex. Parking lots, houses, malls, are being built on top of areas where rainfall enters the ground
27Possible Solutions ?Desalinization – process of removing the salt from ocean water and creating fresh waterNearly all of the drinking water in Saudia Arabia comes from this process.Drawbacks????? – EXPENSIVE
28Best Solution Water Conservation Take showers not baths Don’t run water while brushing teeth, etc….Water lawns in the evening to prevent water loss from evaporationEtc….
30Water PollutionThe introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents into water that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms that depend on it.2 main causes:IndustrializationHuman population explosion
32Infectious AgentsExamples: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic wormsMajor Human Sources: Human and animal wasteHarmful effects: Disease
33Oxygen-Demanding Waste Examples: Organic waste (animal manure and plant debris)Major Human Sources: sewage, animal feedlots, paper mills, and food processing facilitiesHarmful Effects: Depletes oxygen in water causing fish and aquatic to die
34Inorganic ChemicalsExamples: water soluble acids, compounds of toxic metals (lead, arsenic, seleium) and saltsMajor Human Sources: Surface runoff, industrial effluents and household cleanersHarmful Effects:makes water unusable for drinking or irrigationcause skin cancers and crippling spinal and neck damagedamage to nervous system, liver, and kidneysLower crop yieldsAccelerate corrosion of metals exposed to such water
35Organic ChemicalsExamples: oil, gasoline, plastics, cleaning solutions, detergentsMajor Human Sources: Industrial effluents, household cleaners, surface runoff from farms and yardsHarmful Effects:Nervous system damage (some pesticides)Reproductive disorders (some solvents)Cancers (gas, oil, and some solvents)Harm fish and wildlife
36Plant NutrientsExamples: nitates, phosphates, and ammonium (FERTILIZERS)Major Human Sources: Sewage, manure, runoff of agricultural and urban fertilizersHarmful Effects:Excessive growth of algae and other aquatic plants causing fish to suffocate and dieDrinking can kill unborn children and infants (“blue-baby syndrome”)
37Sediment Examples: soil, silt Major Human Souces: land erosion Harmful Effects:Cloud water and prohibit photosynthesisDisrupt aquatic food websCarry pesticides, bacteria, and other harmful substancesClog and fill lakes
38Radioactive Materials Examples: radioactive isotopes of iodine, radon, uranium, cesium, and thoriumMajor Human Sources: nuclear power plants, mining and processing of uranium, nuclear weapons productionHarmful Effects:Genetic mutationsMiscarriagesBirth defectsCertain cancers
39Heat (Thermal Pollution) Examples: excessive heatMajor Human Sources: Water cooling of electric power plants (half of all water withdrawn in US is for cooling these plants)Harmful Effects: Lowers dissolved oxygen levels and makes aquatic organisms more vulnerable to disease, parasites, and toxic chemicals
40Diseases Transmitted Through Contaminated Drinking Water
41Bacteria Typhoid fever Diarrhea Severe vomitting Enlarged spleen Inflamed intestineOften fatal if untreated
42Cholrea Diarrhea Severe vomiting Dehydration Often fatal if left untreated
43Bacterial Dysentery Diarrhea Rarely fatal except in infants without proper