Presentation on theme: "Water and Water Pollution. How is the Earth’s Water Distributed?"— Presentation transcript:
Water and Water Pollution
How is the Earth’s Water Distributed?
How does this freshwater flow across the surface of the earth?
Surface Water Water that is aboveground in lakes, rivers, ponds, rivers and streams. Where does the water come from to fill these???????
The Water Cycle The continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean.
Parts of a River System
Continental divide of the United States River systems are divided into regions called watersheds or drainage basins This is the area of land that is drained by a water system. River systems are seperated from each other by areas of higher ground called a divide.
Drainage of river systems
NC Watersheds (River Basins)
Fact….. 55% of North Carolina residents get there “potable” water (drinking water or usable water) from surface waters. Surface water – any water aboveground such as rivers and lakes Why do the rest of them get there water from?
Groundwater Water located within the rocks underground Enters ground by precipitation infiltrating or percolating down through the soil and rock Where water enters the ground is called the “recharge zone”.
Zones of aeration and saturation
Underground area is divided into zones Zone of aeration – upper zone, this is the area that the rainwater passes through (Acts as a filter …. Removes impurities from water) Zone of saturation – lower zone, water collects here and fills the spaces between the rock particles with water. Water table – boundary where the two zones meet
Water table The water table can rise and fall based on the amount rainfall. It will lower during a drought and rise during periods of heavy rain.
Aquifers A rock layer that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater. Consist of rocks, sand and gravel with a lot of air spaces in which water can accumulate. What determines if a rock or sediment is capable of storing water?
Porosity The percentage of open space (or pores) between individual rock particles in a rock layer.
Porosity is influenced by.. The different sizes of the particles in the rock layer. In other words, if you mix sand and gravel, the sand would fill in the spaces between the gravel; therefore, there would be less open space between the grains. Meaning less space to hold water !
Permeablity The ability to let water pass through. If the pores of a rock layer are connected, groundwater can flow through the rock layer. A rock that stops the flow of water is impermeable.
What causes a spring or lake?
Well Drilling Rig
How a well is placed
Rivers of controversy Rights to rivers water can cause conflict: – Example: Arizona and California fight over the rights to the Colorado River
Middle East Water Conflicts Turkey is building dams that will severely reduce the amount of water that will flow into Syria and Iraq
Groundwater Issues Aquifers are running dry. People are pulling more water out of the ground than is being put in. Urbanization is causing a loss of recharge zones for groundwater aquifers …… ex. Parking lots, houses, malls, are being built on top of areas where rainfall enters the ground
Possible Solutions ? Desalinization – process of removing the salt from ocean water and creating fresh water Nearly all of the drinking water in Saudia Arabia comes from this process. Drawbacks????? – EXPENSIVE
Best Solution Water Conservation – Take showers not baths – Don’t run water while brushing teeth, etc…. – Water lawns in the evening to prevent water loss from evaporation – Etc….
Fresh Water Pollution
Water Pollution The introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents into water that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms that depend on it. 2 main causes: – Industrialization – Human population explosion
Major Categories of Water Pollutants
Infectious Agents Examples: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms Major Human Sources: Human and animal waste Harmful effects: Disease
Oxygen-Demanding Waste Examples: Organic waste (animal manure and plant debris) Major Human Sources: sewage, animal feedlots, paper mills, and food processing facilities Harmful Effects: Depletes oxygen in water causing fish and aquatic to die
Inorganic Chemicals Examples: water soluble acids, compounds of toxic metals (lead, arsenic, seleium) and salts Major Human Sources: Surface runoff, industrial effluents and household cleaners Harmful Effects: – makes water unusable for drinking or irrigation – cause skin cancers and crippling spinal and neck damage – damage to nervous system, liver, and kidneys – Lower crop yields – Accelerate corrosion of metals exposed to such water
Organic Chemicals Examples: oil, gasoline, plastics, cleaning solutions, detergents Major Human Sources: Industrial effluents, household cleaners, surface runoff from farms and yards Harmful Effects: – Nervous system damage (some pesticides) – Reproductive disorders (some solvents) – Cancers (gas, oil, and some solvents) – Harm fish and wildlife
Plant Nutrients Examples: nitates, phosphates, and ammonium (FERTILIZERS) Major Human Sources: Sewage, manure, runoff of agricultural and urban fertilizers Harmful Effects: – Excessive growth of algae and other aquatic plants causing fish to suffocate and die – Drinking can kill unborn children and infants (“blue- baby syndrome”)
Sediment Examples: soil, silt Major Human Souces: land erosion Harmful Effects: – Cloud water and prohibit photosynthesis – Disrupt aquatic food webs – Carry pesticides, bacteria, and other harmful substances – Clog and fill lakes
Radioactive Materials Examples: radioactive isotopes of iodine, radon, uranium, cesium, and thorium Major Human Sources: nuclear power plants, mining and processing of uranium, nuclear weapons production Harmful Effects: – Genetic mutations – Miscarriages – Birth defects – Certain cancers
Heat (Thermal Pollution) Examples: excessive heat Major Human Sources: Water cooling of electric power plants (half of all water withdrawn in US is for cooling these plants) Harmful Effects: Lowers dissolved oxygen levels and makes aquatic organisms more vulnerable to disease, parasites, and toxic chemicals
Diseases Transmitted Through Contaminated Drinking Water
Bacteria Typhoid fever – Diarrhea – Severe vomitting – Enlarged spleen – Inflamed intestine – Often fatal if untreated
Cholrea Diarrhea Severe vomiting Dehydration Often fatal if left untreated
Bacterial Dysentery Diarrhea Rarely fatal except in infants without proper
Enteritis Severe stomach pain Nausea Vomiting Rarely fatal
Virus – Infectious Hepatitis Fever Severe headache Loss of appetite Abdominal pain Jaundice Enlarged liver Can cause permanent liver damage
Parasite – Amoebic Dysentery Severe diarrhea Headache Abdominal pain Chills Fever Can cause death