Presentation on theme: "Digestive System Pathology Chapter 8. Oral Cavity Pathology Aphthous ulcers aka canker sores are recurrent blister like sores that break and form lesions."— Presentation transcript:
Digestive System Pathology Chapter 8
Oral Cavity Pathology Aphthous ulcers aka canker sores are recurrent blister like sores that break and form lesions on the soft tissues lining the mouth. Exact cause is unknown, but thought to be related to stress, certain foods, or fever. Herpes labialis aka cold sores or fever blisters caused by herpes simplex virus Cleft lip aka harelip is a congenital defect resulting in a deep fissure of the lip running upward to the nose Cleft palate is a congenital fissure of the palate that involves the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate
Dental Diseases Bruxism is involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress. This wears away tooth structure and damage soft tissues and causes damage to the tempromandibular joint. Dental caries aka tooth decay or cavities Periodontal disease aka periodontitis – Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums and is the earliest stage of periodontal disease Halitosis aka bad breath Temporomandibular disorders TMD or TMJ
Esophageal Pathology Dysphagia? Esophageal reflux aka gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD is the upward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus Esophageal varices are enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus. Severe bleeding occurs if one of these ruptures Hiatal hernia is a protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm. This may cause esophageal reflux and pyrosis Pyrosis aka heartburn is the burning sensation caused by the regurgitation of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
Stomach Pathology Gastritis? Gastroenteritis? Gastrorrhagia? Gastrorrhea? Gastrorrhexis? Peptic Ulcers are lesions of the mucous membranes of the digestive system. These ulcers are frequently caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori may occur in the lower end of the esophagus, the stomach, or in the duodenum – Gastric ulcers are peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach – Duodenal ulcers – Perforating ulcers involves erosion through the entire thickness of the organ wall
Eating Disorders Anorexia is the lack or loss of appetite for food Anorexia nervosa Bulimia aka bulimia Dehydration Malnutrition Obesity Pica is when there is a desire to eat nonnutritional substances like clay. These abnormal cravings are sometimes associated with pregnancy.
Digestion & Vomiting Pathology Achlorhydria is the absence of hydrochloric acid from gastric secretions Aerophagia? Eructation is the act of belching Dyspepsia? Emesis aka vomiting when stomach contents are expelled through the stomach and out of the mouth Regurgitation is the return of swallowed food into the mouth Hematemesis? Hyperemesis? Nausea
Intestinal Disorders Colorectal cancers Diverticulitis – inflammation of a diverticulum (pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of the intestines) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – chronic disorders – Colitis is inflammation of the colon – Crohn’s disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes scarring and thickening, most commonly in the walls of the ileum, colon, or both – Enteritis? – Ileitis? – Spastic colon or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the motility (movement) of the entire GI tract. Symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, gas, constipation, and/or diarrhea
Intestinal Obstructions Ileus is a temporary stoppage of intestinal peristalsis may be present for 24 to 72 hours after abdominal surgery Intestinal adhesions are where intestinal parts that should normally be separate and held together. Caused by inflammation or trauma. Intestinal obstruction is a complete stoppage or serious impairment to the passage of the intestinal contents A strangulating obstruction is when blood flow to a segment of intestine is cut off which leads to gangrene and perforation
Intestinal Obsturctions Cont. Volvulus is twisting of the intestine Intussusception is the telescoping of one part of the intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. Typically a condition found in infants and young children. Picture on page 151 An inguinal hernia is the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
Infections of the Intestines Amebic dysentery causes frequent, watery stools often with blood and mucus accompanied by pain, fever, and dehydration Botulism – food poisoning that is characterized by paralysis and is often fatal Cholera causes severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydrations that can be fatal if not treated E. coli causes watery diarrhea that becomes bloody but is not usually accompanied by fever Salmonella causes severe diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by a high fever Typhoid fever causes headache, delirium, cough, watery diarrhea, rash, and a high fever
Anorectal disorders Bowel incontinence is the inability to control the excretion of feces Constipation Diarrhea Hemorrhoids aka piles Melena is the passage of black stools containing digested blood
Liver Pathology Cirrhosis is a progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by the disturbance of the structure and function of the liver. It frequently results in jaundice and ultimately hepatic failure Hepatomegaly? Hepatorrhexis? Jaundice aka icterus is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and other tissues caused by excess bilirubin in the blood Hepatitis? Hepatorrhagia?
Gallbladder Pathology Cholecystalgia? Cholecystitis? Gallstone or biliary calculus is a hard deposit that forms in the gallbladder and bile ducts Cholelithiasis is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
Computed tomograhy (CT scan or CAT scan) Abdominal ultrasound Anoscopy is the visual exam of the anal canal and lower rectum using a short speculum called an anoscope Upper GI series of barium swallow test Lower GI series, or barium enema Enema Hemoccult aka fecal occult blood test is a lab test for hidden blood in the stools Stool samples
Endoscopic procedures An endoscope is an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures. Endoscopes are also used for obtaining biopsy samples, controlling bleeding, removing foreign objects, and other surgical and treatment procedures – Colonoscopy – Gastrointestinal endoscopy – Proctoscopy – Sigmoidoscopy
Oral cavity & Esophagus Esophagoplasty? Extraction is the surgical removal of a tooth Gingivectomy? Maxillofacial surgery is specialized surgery of the face & jaws to correct deformities, teat diseases, & repair injuries Palatoplasty?
Stomach Gastrectomy? Gastrotomy? Nasogastric intubation is the placement of a tube through the nose and into the stomach
Intestines Anoplasty? Colectomy? Colotomy? Diverticulectomy? gastroduodenostomy is the removal of the pylorus of the stomach & the establishment of an anastomosis (surgical connection between 2 hollow or tubular structures) between the upper portion of the stomach & the duodenum Hemorrhoidectomy? Ileectomy?
Ostomies An ostomy is a surgical procedure to create and artificial opening between an organ and the body surface. This opening is called a stoma – Gastrostomy – Ileostomy – Colostomy
Rectum & Anus Proctectomy Proctopexy is the surgical fixation of the rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ Proctoplasty
Gallbladder Choledocholithotomy is an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones Laparoscopic cholecystectomy aka lap choley is the surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope and other instrument while working through very small opening in the abdominal wall