Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Notes Weight Management and Eating Disorders."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5 Notes Weight Management and Eating Disorders
Section 5.1: Metabolism and Ideal Weight Weight Management and Ideal Weight
-The television is inundated with weight-loss ads, yet many Americans are dangerously overweight. -The chances of being overweight at some point in your life are high.
How Your Body Uses Food Energy -Metabolism describes all the chemical reactions that occur in the body to break down food and build new materials. -
The amount of calories you consume is determined by two factors: --Basel metabolic rate --Level of activity
-Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): amount needed to fuel the body’s ongoing processes while the body is at complete rest
--Include breathing, circulating blood throughout the body, providing energy to maintain cell function --Does NOT include energy needed to digest food.
-Energy Balance Equation: eating the same number of calories that you burn each day.
--If you add your BMR to the energy required for all your activities during a 24 hour period, and to the energy needed to digest the food you have eaten you end up with the energy the body needs.
--Example: BMR=1000, Activity Level=800, Digestion=180 1000 + 800 + 180 = 1980 --Your total energy requirement per day to maintain your current body weight would be 1980.
Body Composition -Lean Mass: Total body weight minus the weight due to fat -Essential Fat: The amount of fat needed for certain metabolic processes to occur.
-Storage Fat: Excess fat stored in the body -Overweight: Weighing 10 percent more than one’s recommended weight
-Obesity: A condition in which one weighs 20 percent more than the recommended weight Weight gain can slowly occur over a long period of time. -An extra 100 calories a day add up to 1 or 2 pounds a month.
Section 5.2: Eating Disorders -An estimated 1 million teenagers are affected by eating disorders. -As many as 85% of all people with these disorders are female.
-Females are more likely to have an eating disorder because thinness tends to be associated with femininity, sensuality, and being popular. -It is better to see yourself as a fit healthy person.
Anorexia Nervosa -Anorexia Nervosa: an eating disorder in which the person refuses to eat because of a fear of weight gain.
--Characterized by constant dieting and carrying dieting to the extreme. --Leads to a state of starvation --An obsession with being thin
-Anorexics tend to be unable to recognize when they are extremely thin. -Anorexia often occurs as a result of emotional problems
-Part of the recovery process often involves helping the anorexic gain independence
Effects of Anorexia Nervosa -Physical effects related to excessive weight loss include: --Heart rate, BMR, Body Temperature all drop to low levels
-Because the fat stored in the body is used up, the body begins breaking down muscle tissue for energy.
--Loss of muscle tissue can cause permanent heart damage. --When this disorder occurs during puberty, sexual maturity and growth will stop.
-The anorexic has low self- esteem which is generally the cause of the disorder. --The state of starvation results in frequent depression.
--Relationships among family and friends can be strained as the anorexic becomes more and more obsessed with not eating.
Treatment -As many as 10% of anorexics die of starvation without treatment. -Treatment requires a team of professionals – physicians, nurses, psychiatrists, family psychologists, and dietitians – working together. - Treatment -As many as 10% of anorexics die of starvation without treatment. -Treatment requires a team of professionals – physicians, nurses, psychiatrists, family psychologists, and dietitians – working together. -
-The first priority of treatment is aimed at meeting the nutritional deficiencies to prevent long- term medical problems.
Bulimia -Bulimia: an eating disorder based on a cycle of binging and purging food. --A binge involves eating large amounts of food over a very short period of time.
--Purging is either throwing up or using laxatives. Bulimia is far more common in teenage girls than anorexia.
Warning Signs of Bulimia -Recurring episodes of binge eating -Feeling of a lack of control over eating behavior during the eating binges. -Regular practice of self- induced vomiting, using laxatives, or using diuretics.
-Strict dieting, fasting, or engaging in vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain. -An average of two or more binge eating episodes a week for at least three months. -Persistent over-concern with body shape and weight.
Effects of Bulimia -A bulimic may throw up daily to purge. --Throwing up causes the enamel on the teeth to dissolve from exposure to acid from the stomach.
--Salivary Glands become large from overproducing saliva to prevent dehydration. --Frequent throwing up can disturb the electrolyte balance in the body and can result in abnormal heart rhythms and kidney damage.
-Weight loss due to laxatives can cause water loss. --Excessive laxative use disrupts normal bowel function. -Depression is very common.
--Excessive use of diuretics can also cause high blood pressure and dehydration. -The binge-purge cycle tends to dominate the bulimics life.
Treatment -Bulimia can be hard to diagnose because its victims appear to be normal weight. Like anorexia, the emotional basis of this disorder lies in the individual’s low self- esteem
-Therapy includes training in appropriate nutritional eating habits.
Anorexia and Bulimia in Combination -About 30-50 percent of anorexics also go through binge-purge cycles. -Having both disorders increases the health risks.
What Should You Do? -Recognize that eating disorders result from too much emphasis on body shape and weight.
-Because thinness is highly valued in the United States culture, these disorders occur more frequently here than in other parts of the world.
-Learn to be comfortable with your body and realize there is only so much you can do to change it. -If you have, or area at high risk for, an eating disorder, seek help now.
Pica -Pica: an eating disorder in which the person eats nonfood substances like starch, clay, or soil.
-This disorder generally occurs among pregnant women. -The health dangers of pica result from eating harmful bacteria that could be present in clay, soil, or laundry starch.
Section 5.3: Disorders Affecting the Digestive System -Disorders of the digestive system are frequently related to personal choices.
-Overeating and eating foods that are hard to digest are the most frequent cause of digestive problems. -Digestive problems can also be the result of a specific disease.
Constipation -Constipation: a condition in which bowel movements are infrequent or difficult
-Results from too much water being removed in the large intestines. -Constipation may occur due to a: --Low fiber diet --Not drinking enough fluids --Lack of exercise --Stress --Some disease
Diarrhea -Diarrhea: loose bowel movements that occur when food moves too quickly through the digestive system and there is not enough time for water to be removed.
-Even though the stools are watery, the person should drink plenty of liquids. -During diarrhea there is a loss on nutrition and dehydration can occur.
-When diarrhea occurs for a long period of time, the large loss of water can be very dangerous. -If diarrhea lasts for more than two days, a physician should always be consulted.
Food Allergies -Allergies brought about by food can cause reactions such as diarrhea, rashes, congestion, sneezing, and itchy watery eyes.
-Food allergies are the result of the body’s immune system responding to the food as if it were a disease-causing organism. -The most common food allergies involve cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat products, shellfish, and fish.
-The most severe reaction is called anaphylactic shock. --The victim of anaphylactic shock experiences severe itching, hives, sweating, tightness in the throat, and difficulty breathing, followed by low blood pressure, unconsciousness, and eventually death.
-Food Intolerance: a negative reaction to food which is not brought about by the immune system.
-Lactose intolerance is one of the most common of these reactions. --People whose bodies do not tolerate milk --Their bodies do not produce the lactase the enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk.
-Other common intolerances include the inability to adequately digest substances such as prunes, blueberries, corn and MSG.