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Rebabedi Setshogo Katlego Tsiako. What is Diarrhoea?  Diarrhoea is an increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the form of stool.

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Presentation on theme: "Rebabedi Setshogo Katlego Tsiako. What is Diarrhoea?  Diarrhoea is an increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the form of stool."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rebabedi Setshogo Katlego Tsiako

2 What is Diarrhoea?  Diarrhoea is an increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the form of stool (greater looseness of stool).  Faeces are discharged from the bowels frequently (more than three times) and in a liquid form.  It has a range of symptoms including fever, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

3 Symptons?  Signs and symptoms associated with diarrhoea may include:  Frequent loose, watery stools  Abdominal cramps  Abdominal pain  Fever  Bleeding  Lightheadedness or dizziness from dehydration  Diarrhoea caused by a viral infection, such as a stomach virus, or bacterial infection also may cause vomiting. In addition, blood and mucus in the stools may appear with diarrhoea caused by bacterial infections.

4 Causes?  The most common causes of diarrhoea include:  Viruses eg: Rotavirus  Bacteria eg: E. coli, Salmonela  Parasites eg: Giardia  Other causes include medications, such as antibiotics that disturb the natural balance of the bacteria in your intestines, artificial sweeteners and lactose, which is a sugar found in milk.

5 Treatment  1. Oral Rehydration solutions (ORS)  2. Loperamide  3. Racecadotril  4. Antibiotics

6 Pit latrines??  Pit latrines are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low- income countries, especially in rural ares  There is concern, however, that discharges of chemical and microbial contaminants from pit latrines to groundwater may negatively affect human health.  It is estimated that approximately 1.77 billion people use pit latrines as their primary means of sanitation

7 The design of a pit latrine

8 The Problem??  in resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses  the widespread use of ground water for domestic purposes in rural areas, and in parts of the urban areas  Microbiological contaminations from the pit latrines into the water are common in these areas due to poor designs of the pit latrines used  Generally it is risky to use water within a 25m lateral distance from an unsealed pit latrine

9 Continued…  Due to lack of knowledge, people still build the pit latrines in an unsafe manner  This leads to water they use for domestic purposes being contaminated from either the flies that breed in excretory waste or from the water the that percolated into the soil and hence transported into the river systems  However, we have to note that the microorganisms that are associated with faeces include fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli which occur in high concentrations in the faeces of healthy adults and have epidemiological evidence to support their use as indicators of water quality

10 Distance Travelled by Microbes

11 Botswana and Pit Latrines?  Of the two million people residing in Botswana,  Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 74% of population rural: 39% of population total: 60% of population  unimproved: urban: 26% of population rural: 61% of population total: 40% of population

12 The Result?  Hundreds of people die from the diarrhoea ins the country  In 2006 alone 460 children and a few adults in a period of four months  23,264 cases had been reported across all of Botswana's districts  Generally, about 43% of diarrheal infections in the country are said to originate from these microbes which are found in the stools of those who are affected, making it one of the highest killing diseases in the country

13 Our Solution?  Increase horizontal separation distances between latrine and water point  Move water point higher than latrines  Change to a drier form of latrine  Increase vertical separation between bottom of pit and water table by using shallower pits or vaults latrines  If a borehole is being used, site the screens lower in the water table  Treat water supplies or encourage use of home water treatment

14 Refferences  ml ml  https://wiki.umn.edu/pub/EWB/Uganda_Groundwater_Supply/Grou ndwater_- _Assessment_of_the_impacts_of_pit_latrines_on_groundwater_qu ality.pdf https://wiki.umn.edu/pub/EWB/Uganda_Groundwater_Supply/Grou ndwater_- _Assessment_of_the_impacts_of_pit_latrines_on_groundwater_qu ality.pdf   epidemic-kills-470-children epidemic-kills-470-children


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