Bacteria grow best when they have: Food Moisture Warmth Conditions
The Cool Rules Divide & Conquer Put leftovers in small, shallow containers and cool right away in the refrigerator The Chill Factor Refrigerate or freeze perishables and leftovers within 2 hours The Thaw Law Never defrost on the counter! Thaw food in the refrigerator, the microwave, or in cold water
Danger Zone Keep Hot Foods Hot and Cold Foods Cold!!!! The danger zone is any food in the temperature range from 40 to 140 degrees This is the ample temperature range for bacterial growth
Rules to Live By! Don’t taste or eat food from a can or jar that is bulging, damaged, or leaking Boil home-canned foods 15 to 20 minutes before tasting or eating Keep yourself and your work area clean Get rid of insects and rodents immediately Keep pets out of the kitchen!
Cross Contamination The spread of harmful bacteria from one food source to another After handling of cutting raw meat, poultry, or fish, thoroughly wash your hands, the work area, and utensils before working with ready to eat food Use color coded cutting boards
Salmonella Caused by a bacteria Sources: Raw/undercooked poultry, eggs, meat. Unpasteurized milk, through cross contamination Symptoms: Stomach pain, diarrhea Begins 6-48 hrs after eating and may last 3-5 days, serious for infants and elderly
E Coli Caused by a Toxin Sources: Contaminated water, raw/rare ground beef, unpasteurized milk Symptoms: Abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, nausea Begins 3-4 days after eating, lasts up to 10 days, often requires hospitalization, can lead to kidney failure
Campylobacter (Traveler’s Diarrhea) Caused by a toxin Sources; Contaminated water from foreign countries, unpasteurized milk Symptoms: Cramps, diarrhea, fever Can begin 30 minutes after ingesting, can last up to 5 days =
Botulism Caused by a toxin Sources: Improperly canned/vacuum sealed foods, foods left at room temp or warm with limited oxygen Symptoms: Very sudden, affects the nervous system, respiratory system paralyzes, usually fatal Begins 12-48 hours after eating
Staph Caused by a toxin Sources: Spread by improper food handling through human skin, in nose or throat, not covering a wound Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Begins 30 min-8 hrs after eating, lasts a day or two
Toxoplasmosis Caused by a parasite in mammals, reptiles and birds Sources: Undercooked meat/poultry, cleaning litter boxes without washing hands afterwards Symptoms: cold or flu symptoms, can cause nerve damage, especially harmful for pregnant women
Clostridium Perfringens Caused by a toxin from a bacteria Sources: Food in little to no oxygen, also called the “cafeteria germ”, foods in large quantities that are left at room temperature Symptoms: diarrhea, gas pains Begins 9-15 hours after eating, last for a day, harmful for the elderly and ulcer patients
Listeria Caused by a bacteria Sources: in the environment, can slowly grow in refrigerators set at harmful temperatures Symptoms: Rare, can be fatal causes fever, chills, back and stomach pains in adults, very harmful for newborns, causes respiratory and eating problems, meningitis, miscarriages and stillbirths
Burn Prevention Always use pot holders/mitts Use tumblers for hot dishes of food Never turn on the burners unless you are actually cooking Pay attention to what’s going on in the kitchen!!! Know where the fire extinguisher and fire blanket are located
Injury Prevention Unless you know what you are doing with a knife, you shouldn’t be using it Pay attention to what you are doing when using a knife Never throw a dirty knife into the dish water NEVER PLAY AROUND WITH KNIVES
Fall Prevention If you spill something on the floor, make sure you clean it up right away If you cant reach something in the cupboard get someone to help you Where secure shoes on lab days Don’t run around in the kitchens (duh….)
Shock Prevention Don’t plug in appliances near a sink full of water Don’t wash out appliances if they are still plugged in If an appliance says “Don’t submerge in water”, wash of the surfaces with a damp hot towel If an outlet gets dirty, let the teacher clean it up
Why Practice Safety and Sanitation? You Tell Me!
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