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©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 Communicable and Acute Illness: Identification and Management.

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1 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 Communicable and Acute Illness: Identification and Management

2 Early Signs of Illness Teachers should be familiar with the characteristic signs of common childhood communicable illnesses. Recognizing the early signs of communicable illnesses provides an effective method for limiting their spread to other children and adults. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

3 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Airborne-Transmitted Illnesses What signs do each of these illnesses present and how can the illness be controlled? Common illnesses include (see Table 6-1): –Chicken pox –Colds –Fifth disease –Haemophilus influenza (Hib) –Measles –Meningitis

4 Chicken Pox ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

5 Fifth Disease ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

6 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Airborne-Transmitted Illnesses (continued) –Mononucleosis –Mumps –Roseola (Sixth disease) –Strep throat –Tuberculosis –Whooping cough

7 Roseola ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

8 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blood Borne-Transmitted Illnesses What signs do each of these illnesses present and how can the illness be controlled? Common illnesses include (see Table 6-1): –Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); acquired immunodeficiency disorder syndrome (AIDS) –Hepatitis B

9 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Contact (Direct, Indirect)-Transmitted Illnesses What signs do each of these illnesses present and how can the illness be controlled? Common illnesses include (see Table 6-1): –Pinkeye (conjunctivitis) –Cytomegalovirus (CMV) –Hand-foot-mouth disease –Herpes simplex (cold sores) –Impetigo –Head lice

10 Pinkeye ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

11 Hand Foot & Moth Disease

12 Impetigo ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

13 Head Lice ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

14 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Contact (Direct, Indirect)-Transmitted Illnesses (continued) What signs do each of these illnesses present and how can the illness be controlled? Common illnesses include (see Table 6-1): –Ringworm –Rocky Mountain spotted fever –Scabies –Tetanus

15 Ringworm ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

16 Scabies ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

17 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Fecal-Oral-Transmitted Illnesses What signs do each of these illnesses present and how can the illness be controlled? Common illnesses include (see Table 6-1): –Shigellosis − Hepatitis A –E. coli − Pinworms –Encephalitis − Salmonella –Giardiasis − Campylobacter

18 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Diarrhea It is important to distinguish between noninfectious and infectious causes of diarrhea. Diarrhea can be serious condition in infants and toddlers, especially if it is excessive or prolonged. Young children must be observed carefully for signs of dehydration. Medical attention must be sought if diarrhea lasts more than several days.

19 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Earaches Earaches are common, especially in boys younger than three or four –The incidence gradually decreases with age They are often associated with allergies, colds, feeding position (infants), and/or foreign objects in the ear. Otitis media can develop and may interfere with hearing ability.

20 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lyme Disease A tick-borne infection that is becoming more common in the United States and Canada. Prevention is the best method of defense: –Wearing protective clothing –Using DEET insecticide repellants –Bathing, and inspecting the skin after playing outdoors –Removing any ticks

21 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Consider this…. Why might some families knowingly bring an ill child to school? How would you handle this situation as a teacher, especially if it is a recurring problem?

22 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Approximately 2,500 infants die each year. SIDS is the leading cause of death among infants between 1 and 12 months of age. Male babies are at higher risk (61 percent) for developing SIDS.

23 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. SIDS (continued) A specific cause has not been identified, but certain factors are known to increase the risk, including: –Babies’ sleep position (should sleep on their back) –Lack of maternal prenatal care –Mothers who smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs during pregnancy –Exposure to secondhand smoke –Respiratory infections –Premature birth (before 37 weeks) –Being born to a teenage mother –Soft bedding (e.g., blankets, bumper pads, mattress)

24 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Measures to Prevent SIDS The CDC’s Back-to- Sleep campaign teaches families and care providers to always put infants to sleep on their back and in their own bed.

25 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Additional Measures to Prevent SIDS Mothers are urged to get prenatal care and avoid substances during pregnancy. Breast-feeding offers infants some protection. Soft bedding (e.g., pillows, blankets, toys) must be removed from baby’s bed. Dressing babies too warmly should be avoided.

26 North Carolina Law On August 13, 2003, North Carolina Governor Michael Easley signed into law a bill requiring childcare providers to put babies on their back when placing them to sleep in childcare settings. The N.C. Prevent SIDS law (GS ) went into effect December 1, It is intended to reduce the risk of SIDS in child care.The N.C. Prevent SIDS law (GS ) ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

27 NC Law In addition to specifying infant sleep position, the law stipulates that childcare providers: Monitor sleeping babies Adopt a written safe sleep policy Inform parents/guardians about the safe sleep policy Receive SIDS-related training The N.C. SIDS law allows for a medical or parent waiver under certain conditions. It also requires agencies involved in investigating reports of child abuse or neglect in childcare facilities to coordinate their efforts. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

28 NC Childcare Licensing Rules Childcare licensing rules designed to support the N.C. SIDS law went into effect May 1, 2004 and apply to all facilities licensed to care for infants 12 months of age or younger. 10A NCAC SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 10A NCAC SAFE SLEEP POLICY ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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